The Lung Cancer

Lung cancer is a condition in which cancer cells grow uncontrollably in the respiratory organs, namely the lungs. Lung cancer is the most common type of cancer. especially among smokers. this disease attacks many active and passive smokers.
In the early stages of the disease, there are no clear signs or symptoms of lung cancer. But then symptoms such as coughing continuously to experience coughing up blood, always feeling out of breath, fatigue without reason, and weight loss will appear.

The Types of Lung Cancer

There are two types of primary lung cancer based on the type of cell:

  1. lung cancer / SCLC (small-cell lung cancer)
  2. lung cancer / NSCLC non-small-cell lung cancer. Non-small cell lung cancer is four times more likely to occur than small cell lung cancer.

Small cell lung cancer attacks heavy smokers. The spread of cancer cells is faster than non-small cell lung cancer.

The Risk factor

Smoking is a major cause of lung cancer. The highest risk of developing lung cancer is active smokers. 85 percent of lung cancer cases are related to smoking habits. This means that not every smoker will develop lung cancer. and conversely, non-smokers are also likely to develop lung cancer, even though it is lower in number.

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The source of drinking water from time to time decreases. It is due to illegal logging of forests almost evenly everywhere. This has a direct impact on the depletion of underground drinking water supplies. If the dry season comes in many villages and the area will experience drought. Therefore the community must immediately stop illegal logging with the police and security forces. Besides making efforts to conserve drinking water sources and replanting forests.


River water flows into a reservoir I through a coarse filter that can separate solids in large particles. The reservoir I was given a filter consisting of fibers, sand, gravel and so forth. Then the water flowed to the second container. Here put alum and chlor. From here it is only flowed to the inhabitants or taken directly to the locals themselves. To be free of bacteria when water will be drunk still require boiled first.


Springs that naturally arise in the villages need to be managed by protecting the springs so as not to be contaminated with feces. From here the water can be channeled to people’s homes through bamboo pipes or residents can directly take it themselves to the source that has been protected.


Well water pumps, especially deep well water pumps are sufficient to meet health requirements. But these pump wells in rural areas are still expensive. Besides that technology is still considered high for rural communities. More common in rural areas is a dug well.

            In order for the well water of this excavation pump is not polluted by the dirt around it, the need for the following conditions:

  1. There should be a good lip so that when the rainy season arrives, groundwater will not enter into it.
  2. At the top of approximately 3 m from the surface of the ground must be walled, so that water from above cannot contaminate the well water.
  3. Need to be given a layer of gravel at the bottom of the well to reduce turbidity.
  4. Instead of gravel, into this well can be incorporated a substance that can form a precipitate, such as aluminum sulfate (alum).
  5. Cleaning the cloudy well water can be done by filtering it with a self-made filter from a used tin.

Rain Water

            The household need for water can also be done through rainwater catchment. Each family can do rainwater catching from its roof through the flow of gutters. In the rainy season this is not a problem but in the dry season may be a problem. To cope with the family requires a larger rainwater reservoir it is needed having a reservoir for the dry season.

Bad Impact of Obesity

There are some bad Impacts of Obesity that usually appear after a long time unhealthy habits of consuming foods:

1. Excessive accumulation of fat under the diaphragm and inside the chest wall can compress the lungs.

2. So that respiratory problems and shortness of breath arise, even though the patient only has a mild activity.

3. Respiratory problems can occur during sleep and cause a temporary cessation of breathing (sleep apnea). As a result, during the day sufferers often feel sleepy.

4. Obesity can cause a variety of orthopedic problems, including lower back pain and worsen osteoarthritis (especially in the hip, knee and ankle area). Also sometimes skin disorders are found.

5. A person suffering from obesity has a relatively narrow body surface compared to his weight, so that body heat cannot be disposed of efficiently and sweat more. Edema is often found (swelling due to the accumulation of fluid) in the limbs and ankles.

Factors That Cause Obesity

  1. Scientifically, obesity results from consuming more calories than is needed by the body. The cause of the imbalance between intake and burning of calories is still unclear.
  2. The occurrence of obesity involves several factors:
    a. Food Factors
    If someone consumes food with the energy content that is needed by the body, then there is no energy stored. Conversely, if you consume food with more energy than your body needs, the energy will be stored, as energy reserves, especially as fat as described above.
    b. Heredity Factor
    Research in humans and animals shows that obesity occurs because of factors of gene and environmental interactions.
    c. Hormone Factors
    Decreased thyroid hormone in the body due to deterioration of thyroid gland function will affect metabolism where the ability to use energy will decrease.
    d. Psychological Factors
    In some individuals will eat more than usual if they feel the need for a special need for emotional security (security food).
    e. Inappropriate Lifestyle (Life Style)
    Global socioeconomic, technological and information progress has led to lifestyle changes that include thought patterns and attitudes, which can be seen from eating habits and physical activity patterns.
    f. Use of Medicines
    Side effects of some drugs can cause weight gain, such as contraceptive drugs.

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Plastic Waste Problem Solution: Insinerator and Recycling

Plastic waste is a problem for the environment. Not only a problem for developing countries, but also for developed countries around the world. This problem must be addressed immediately so as not to get bigger.

Plastic is a synthetic polymer material that never loose in everyday life. Plastics have become an important part and become the primary needs of everyone. Ranging from home appliances, school supplies, computer equipment, phones, cables, children’s toys. Also food wrappers to artificial heart valves, all do not escape the interference of these synthetic polymers. Plastics have many meritorious and provide convenience in meeting their daily needs. But is it true that there is no problem caused?

The Polymer’s Hazard

Before discussing more about the problems caused by the use of plastics and the prevention, it is better if the authors discuss briefly about the polymer. Polymers are classified into two kinds, namely natural polymers (such as starch, cellulose, and silk) and synthetic polymers (such as vinyl polymers). Plastics known everyday are often interchangeable with synthetic polymers. This is because easily formed plastic properties (Latin, plasticus = easily formed) are associated with synthetic polymers that can be melted and converted into various shapes. In fact, plastic has a more narrow meaning.

Plastics include thermoplastic polymer parts, the polymers that will soften when heated and can be formed according to the pattern we want. Once cool the polymer will preserve its new shape. This process can be repeated and can be transformed into another form. Another class of synthetic polymers is a thermoset polymer (a material that can be melted at some stage in its manufacture but becomes hard forever, not softened and can not be reprinted). Examples of this polymer is a widely used for radio equipment, toilets, and others.

The discovery and development of synthetic polymers is based on the presence of several limitations found in the utilization of natural polymers. Synthetic polymers whose development is very rapid is plastic. The ease and privilege of plastics has replaced the use of materials such as metal and wood in helping human life. Examples of plastics widely used in daily life are polyethylene (packing material, plastic bag, toy, bottle), teflon (metal substitute, cooking utensil), polyvinylchloride (for pipe, household appliance, paint, phonograph ), polystyrene (electrical insulators, food wrappers, styrofoam, toys), and others.The increasing number of the world population, it also increases the use of natural resources and energy on a large scale. This causes the amount of waste to be greatly increased.

Among the waste, plastic waste is the most difficult waste handling, because plastic waste can not decompose in the environment. As a result, plastic waste has become a large-scale environmental problem and should be sought after its completion.In developed countries, various methods of solving waste problems have been tested, from the smallest to the largest scale. The results of this study have provided an overview in choosing one of the most appropriate models to be applied to adapt local environmental and resource conditions.

In the handling of organic waste with household waste composting technology, the process is very dependent on the “miracle” of bacteria, both aerobic bacteria and anaerobic bacteria that help the process of fermentation or decomposition. Scientifically, the results of these experiments are very significant to help reduce the accumulation and contamination of toxic waste content of household waste. Waste processing technology using sanitary Landfill method, Mini Composter, Vermicomposting, Incinerator, Open Windrow, Aerial Tub, Bio Filter and many more is an alternative way to solve garbage problem. Each technology has very different characteristics in its application or operation. If you are not careful selecting the technology used, it will be fatal for users, both in terms of economic, health, time and emotion. This can happen because each technology has many specifications, such as the size and type of raw materials, treatments, and special care.

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