THE DANGERS OF CIGARETTES FOR HEALTH


The community must know about the dangers of cigarettes for health. And the government must always drive anti-cigarette campaigns to the community. The benefits of the tobacco industry are very small compared to the adverse effects on health. And more tragically, cigarettes will damage the potential of the younger generation. Besides that, cigarette addicts will be more easily tempted to use drugs.

Understanding Cigarettes

  1. A cigarette is a paper-sized slender of 70 to 120 mm long with a diameter of about 10 mm containing tobacco leaves that have been chopped.
  2. By burning cigarettes at one end and allowed to burn so that the smoke can be inhaled through the mouth at the other end.
  3. Cigarettes are dangerous & addictive products (causing dependence).
  4. In the cigarette, there are 4000 dangerous chemicals 69 of which are carcinogenic (can cause cancer).
  5. Hazardous substances contained in cigarettes include tar, carbon monoxide, cyanide, arsenic, formaldehyde, nitrosamine, and others.

Types of smokers


Based on the type of smokers can be divided into:

  1. Active smoker
    They have gotten used to and actually smoked cigarettes and paid for the consequences themselves.
  2. Passive smoker
    They actually do not smoke but because there are other people who smoke nearby then they automatically participate in the smoking cigarette with all the consequences.
    Based on the number of smokers divided into:
  3. Light smokers.
    Smokers who smoke or spend about 1-10 cigarettes per day.
  4. Medium smokers.
    Smokers who spend about 10-20 cigarettes per day.
  5. Heavy smokers.
    Smokers who spend more than 20 cigarettes per day.

Substances contained in smoking

  1. Nicotine
    This substance contains opium can cause a person addicted to keeping smokes cigarettes.
    Influence on the human body
    a. Causing addiction or dependence damages brain tissue
    b. Cause blood rapidly freezes
    c. Hardened artery walls
  2. Tar
    The basic ingredients of making the asphalt that can stick to the lungs and can cause irritation and even cancer
    Influence on the human body
    a. Kill the cells in the bloodstream
    b. Increase the production of mucus in the lungs
    c. Causes lung cancer
  3. Carbon Monoxide
    Gas that can cause heart disease because this gas can bind oxygen in the body.
    Influence on the human body
    a. Binds hemoglobin, so the body is deprived of oxygen
    b. blocking transport in the blood
  4. Carcinogenic substances
    Influence on the human body
    It triggers the growth of cancer cells in the body
  5. Irritants
    Influence for human body
    a. To pollute the airways and airbags in the lungs
    b. Causes a cough.
    As we know there are 4000 toxic chemicals in a cigarette. 40 of them are harmful substances such as hydrogen cyanide (HCN), arsenic, ammonia, polonium, and carbon monoxide (CO). This chemical is composed of 85% gas components and particles.


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THE PROBLEM OF OBESITY

Today the problem of obesity is a global problem that engulfs the world community in both developed and developing countries including Indonesia. Lifestyle changes including the tendency to consume foods that contain high fat are factors that support the occurrence of overweight and obesity that leads to the problem of obesity. There are various efforts to slimming the body, for example by regulating food, changing lifestyles, administering drugs and surgery to reduce fat or remove part of the intestine. But the most important thing is the behavior of healthy living every day.

Definition of Obesity

Obesity or obesity has different meanings for everyone. Sometimes we are often confused with the notion of obesity and overweight, even though both terms have different meanings. Obesity is a condition of excess body weight due to the accumulation of fat, for men and women each of which exceeds 20% and 25% of body weight and can endanger health. While overweight (overweight, overweight) is a condition where a person’s body weight exceeds normal body weight. Doctors have their own definition of obesity, including:
• A condition where body fat is in excessive amounts
• A chronic treatable disease
• An epidemic (epidemic)
• A condition that is associated with other diseases and can reduce the quality of life
• Handling obesity requires very high maintenance costs

Types of Obesity

Type in obesity can be divided into 2 classifications, namely the type of obesity based on body shape and type of obesity based on the state of fat cells. Type of Obesity Based on Body Shape:

a. Apple type obesity (Apple Shape). This type is usually found in men. Where fat accumulates around the stomach. Health risks for this type are higher compared to pear (Gynoid) types.
b. Pear (Gynoid) type of obesity
This type tends to be owned by women, the fat is stored around the hips and buttocks. The risk for diseases of the gynoid type is generally small.
c. Ovid Type (Fruit Box Shape)
Characteristics of this type are “large in all parts of the body”. The Ovid type is generally found in people who are genetically obese

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Principles Of Nutrition In Children Under 5 Years

Nutrition is a process of using food normally consumed by an organism through the process of digestion, absorption, transport, storage, metabolism and expenditure of substances not used to maintain the normal life, growth, and function of the organs, and generate energy. Proverawati; Asfuah; 2010:1)

Nutrition is Very Important

Nutrition is a very important part of growth and development. It is because:

1. Nutrition in it has a close connection with health and intelligence. Therefore, nutrition becomes one of the determinants of the quality of human resources.

2. A good nutritional status in children under 5 years should get more attention. Because when the nutritional status of children under 5 years is bad, can inhibit the physical growth, mental and ability to think and of course will decrease work productivity.   

3. The type of food and the way it is given also needs to be in accordance with the circumstances of body growth and development of intelligence. Thus, will be obtained a balanced nutrition for Children under 5 years. Basically, the human caloric needs vary according to age, sex, activity, weight, height etc.

Children under 5 years of age 1-5 years can be divided into two, namely:

  1. children aged over one year to three years known as “toddlers”
  2. And children aged more than three years to five years known as the “preschool” age. Children under five years are a group that shows the rapid growth of the body but this group is the most common group suffering from malnutrition (Proverawati, Asfuah, 2010, 127)

Carrying out the best feeding to Children under 5 years aims to: 

  1. Provide adequate nutrition for the needs, maintain health and restore it if ill, perform various activities, growth, and physical and mental development.
  2. Educate good habits about eating, liking and determining the food needed.

Important Nutrition Of Children under 5 years

  1. Nutritional Needs in Children under 5 years need more nutrients because Children under 5 years (1-5 years of age) is a golden period.
  2. Period of life is very important for physical and mental development, at this time also Children under 5 years began to do and find new things. In this case, good nutrition plays an important role.
  3. No giving food intake containing substances that are not good, such as foods containing preservatives, artificial colorings, artificial sweeteners, food delights and the like, it will look its effect on the health of the body.
  4. Thus, the provision of food with a balanced nutritional fulfillment is the right way to maintain health and growth of children under 5 years. So, pay attention to the good diet for Children under 5 years.

The essential nutrients

Among the essential nutrients for food intake for children under 5 years are as follows:

(1) Carbohydrates are easily available energy sources in every food and should be available in sufficient quantities because carbohydrate deficiency can cause hunger and weight loss if the number of carbohydrates in high amounts can cause an increase in weight or obesity. Sufficient amounts of carbohydrates can be obtained from milk, grains, fruits, flour, tubers, wheat and others.

(2) Protein should be consumed in a balanced way because protein is required for the growth and development of the child. Protein is used after carbohydrates and fats are inadequate in the body supply. Protein sources can be obtained from chicken, beans, milk, yogurt, bread, and others.

(3) Fat is the main energy source for growth and physical activity for Children under 5 years. Fat member tasty taste, satiety, and delicious food. Food sources derived from fat such as meat, butter, mayonnaise, cheese, milk.

(4) Vitamins and minerals are recommended to always be served in the daily diet. Because the vitamin is not produced by the body in large quantities. Vitamins are helpful in fighting free radicals. Vitamins can be found in bread, fruits, vegetables, milk, meat.

The function of several food nutrients according to Dwijayanti (2011: 31) as follows:

(1) Carbohydrates serve to conserve protein during energy production. And help burn fat to be more efficient and more perfect. Become a source of quick energy, help the normal function of the intestine, as laksatif helps calcium absorbs.

(2) Proteins function for growth, repair, maintenance of structures and tissues, hormone formation, helps transport other substances in the blood, as well as energy sources.

(3) Fats function is to produce energy for the body, facilitate the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, supply essential fatty acids, support and protect internal organs, help regulate temperature, lubricate body tissues.

(4) Vitamins and minerals function in antioxidants, coenzymes, food additives, medicinal ingredients

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Adverse effects of cigarette smoke

The public need to know the adverse effects of cigarette smoke.  Actually, Adverse effects of cigarette smoke on school children and teenagers and pregnant women.
Cigarette smoke is very bad for school children and teenagers and pregnant women because it can interfere with the health of the fetus in the womb. The adverse effects of cigarette smoke not only endanger the health of the smoker himself, but also other people around him who accidentally smoke cigarette smoke.

The Diseases 


School children and teenagers exposed to cigarette smoke are susceptible to exposure:
• Respiratory tract infections (bronchitis, pneumonia, and lung infections).
• Sudden asthma disorders.
• Ear infections.
• A chronic cough.
• Lymphoma.
• Blood cancer.
• Brain tumor.
• Weakened body resistance.
Sucking cigarette smoke during pregnancy can cause:
• Babies born prematurely.
• Baby’s weight at low birth.
• Babies die suddenly.
• Mental disability.
• Inability to learn.
• ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome).


Efforts to prevent the bad effects of cigarette smoke on passive smokers?
The more often we are exposed to cigarette smoke, the higher the risk of the disease.
Effective efforts that can be done is to distance yourself and your family from cigarette smoke. Ask that a smoker not smoke around other people such as inside the house, or in a public place. At the mosque, at the market, on the bus, at the public transport stop, at the terminal.
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Prevention Efforts

Plastic Waste Problem Solution (Part 2)

Actually plastic has several advantages, such as strong, light, and stable. However, the plastic waste is difficult to decompose by microorganisms in the environment causing serious environmental pollution.  To solve the problem of plastic waste, several approaches such as recycling. Development of plastic waste processing technology. And also the development of new plastic materials in order that the plastic waste can be destroyed and decomposed in the environment, known as biodegradable plastics.

Here we will discuss waste management methods through combustion process using incinerator and recycling process to handle the combustion side product. It is expected that this method can be applied in Indonesia.  To deal with environmental problems caused by environmental disability (especially microorganisms) in remodeling and decomposing plastic waste.

The use of plastic continues to increase from year to year. Even in 1992, plastic waste was ranked third of all waste production in Bandung. Plastic waste itself is a waste that is difficult to degrade. It causes pollution on environmental sustainability.

The Sanitary Landfill

During this effort to handle plastic waste is done by sanitary landfill method. This method is one of controlled waste management. Trash is discharged to the Final Disposal, then the garbage is compacted with the tractor and then covered with the ground. This will eliminate air pollution that will cause waste. At the bottom of the place is equipped leachate channel system that serves as a waste liquid waste channel that must be processed first before discharge into the river or into the environment.

This method is not effective because it often causes pollution of ground water and the environment around the landfill. Even recently, in Bandung there was a disaster due to landfill that does not meet the requirements. In addition there is the possibility of gas that can cause air pollution. Gases that may be produced are: methane, H2S, NH3 and other H2S and NH3 gases although the numbers are small, but can cause unpleasant odors that can damage the respiratory system of plants and make plants lack of oxygen gas and eventually die.

In the process of landfilling, needs a lot of jobs and funds. A better solution needs to be considered. The solution includes efforts to reduce plastic waste production and waste processing efforts that already exist.

Efforts to reduce waste production

Efforts to reduce waste production can be done by:

(1) Use of biodegradable plastics, (2) Much research has been done to obtain biodegradable plastics. Usually, a plastic polymer is mixed with certain impurities that cause the polymer bonding strength to decrease. (3) Reduction of plastic usage. (4)  Plastics may be replaced with other materials that are more environmentally friendly. Shopping bags that have been made of plastic can be replaced with paper. (5) Sorting of organic and plastic waste.

The waste segregation should start from the household level. Household waste should have been split into organic and inorganic waste (including plastic). Further sorting is also done at a higher level, such as the supermarkets.  They are more manageable than the traditional market, offices, hotels, and apartments too. 

Combustion results are gases and combustion residues. The decrease in the volume of solid waste from combustion can reach 70%. This method is relatively more expensive than sanitary landfill, which is about three times as much.The advantages of this combustion system are:

  • Requires a relatively small area compared to sanitary landfills.• Can be built near industrial sites.
  • The combustion residue is relatively stable and almost all of them are inorganic.
  • Can be used as an energy source, both for steam generators, hot water, electricity, and metal melting.

The drawback lies in the expensive investment, labor, repair and maintenance costs, and still removing residues, also generating gas.In general, the combustion process inside the incinerator is:

  • Burnable waste is inserted in a container or supplier.
  • Next, the garbage is set so that it is flat and then put into the burner stove.
  • Ash combustion results, can then be used as a waste cover on landfill.
  • While the results of gas will be channeled through a chimney that is equipped with a scrubber or accommodated to be utilized as an energy generator.

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