To maintain the nutritional balance for pregnant women is very important. The condition of pregnant women is very different from those who are not pregnant. Especially in terms of daily food consumption. Because not only to fulfill nutrition for herself, but also for her fetus.  Actually, in regulating the intake or food menu, there are things that need to be noticed during pregnancy, for example:

  1. Avoid consuming canned food, excessive sweet foods, and foods that are not fresh
  2. Pregnant women should eat regularly to keep the body so that the fetus in the bladder can absorb food from his mother well
  3. Dishes are composed of nutritious and protein-rich foods
  4. Use a wide variety of nutrient-rich foods by buying and choosing fresh, fully nutritious foods (protein, fat, vitamins)
  5. Reduce the foods that contain lots of gas such as mustard, cabbage, and others
  6. Avoid smoking and drinking like alcohol and others.

Food menu for pregnant women, basically not much different from the menu before pregnancy. So there should be no difficulty in the food menu settings during pregnancy.

Sample menu of the day in pregnant women

  • Grocery Portion dish of the day type of dish
  • Rice 5 + 1 serving Morning food: 1.5 portion rice (150 gram) with fish/meat 1 medium cut (40 grams), medium soy steak 2 pieces (50 grams), 1 cup bowl
  • Vegetable 3 bowls
  • Fruit 4 pieces
  • Meat 3 pieces and fruit 1 medium cut.
  • Eating interlude: 1 cup milk and 1 medium piece of fruit
  • Lunch: 3 servings of rice (300 grams), with a side dish, vegetable, and fruit equal to morning.
  • Meat 3 pieces
  • 2 cup milk
  • Oil 5 teaspoons

Nutrition of Pregnant Women

  1. Food substances are very important for pregnant women because they work for fetal development and growth.
  2. Therefore, the need for food substances must always be met in the body of pregnant women.
  3. It is because the fetus requires nutrients for its development.

According to Dr. Tina Wardani Wisesa, pregnancy is very meaningful to women’s lives. Because it can affect the physiological and psychological conditions. During pregnancy, this will decrease appetite due to physical and physical factors that often appear early in pregnancy. To overcome this, you should eat in small quantities but often.

The food eaten should be no shortage and also the excess. However, that must have many nutrients, protein and enough vitamins and minerals that lives in the body of pregnant women. Nutrition needs will continue to increase, especially after entering the second trimester of pregnancy. Because at that moment, the growth of the fetus is very fast and the mother’s weight goes up and down quickly. In the last two months of pregnancy, the baby’s brain develops very quickly, because in this period babies need nutrients for the development of the brain and nerve tissue.

Things to watch out for, although increased appetite is to stick to a balanced diet with a balanced diet by avoiding high-calorie foods. , be avoided by pregnant women because of the possibility of carrying seeds of certain diseases or parasites that can harm the fetus.

            Things to consider in the fulfillment of pregnant women’s nutrients are:

  1. Mothers should eat regularly three times a day.
  2. The dish should be composed of nutritious food ingredients consisting of: staple food, side dishes, vegetables and fruits and drink 1 cup of milk every day.
  3. Using a variety of existing foods.
  4. Choosing a variety of fresh food.

Usefulness of food for pregnant women

1) For the growth of the fetus in the womb

2) To maintain the health and strength of the body for the mother herself

3) In order for the wounds of labor to heal quickly

4) Useful for backing up for lactation.

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Malnutrition In Children Under 5 Years

Malnutrition is still prevalent in developing countries such as Indonesia. For children under 5 years of age, it will greatly affect their physical growth and development. Therefore, it is necessary to have an integral effort to overcome malnutrition.

Children who are poorly geared for growth and developmental nutrition are inhibited than children who have sufficient nutritional intake. For example, growth includes height, weight Children under 5 years low, brain development, the level of intelligence and psychic are also low and susceptible to infection.

Causes of the malnutrition

Many things that cause the malnutrition in Children under 5 years. These factors are as follows:

  • Economic factors. Parents Children under 5 years old are unable to provide good nutrition due to cost issues.
  • Educational factors. Limited knowledge of good nutritional intake can lead to errors in child feeding. Parents may provide food intake to children in large quantities but without regard to the nutritional content in the food.
  • Environmental factors. If a family lives in an environment that is less attention to nutrition intake, it does not close the possibility of families participating in the habits surrounding environment.
  • According to Dwijayanti (2011: 7), less nutrition can also be caused by (1) Inability to metabolize nutrients. (2) Inability to get the appropriate nutrients from food. (3) Acceleration of excretion of nutrients from the body.
  • Pain or disease that increases the body’s need for nutrients.

Balance Menu For Children under 5 years

            A balanced nutritional intake for children under 5 years is very necessary. Not good if the nutritional intake is less or excessive, it is necessary to balance it tailored to the needs.

Balanced Menu for Children under 5 years according to  Asfuah (2010: 136) namely:

  • Sugar and Salt. Consumption of salt for Children under 5 years no more than 1/6 of the maximum number of adults a day or less than 1 gram. Pay attention to food Children under 5 years old mothers because the adult food is not necessarily suitable for him. Sometimes the mother’s food is too much salt or sugar, or even contain preservatives or artificial coloring.
  • Eating Portion. The child’s meal portion is also different from that of an adult. They need nutritious food sources of complete nutrients in smaller amounts but often.
  • Energy and Nutrition Requirement. Food ingredients of energy sources such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats and vitamins, minerals and fiber must be consumed by children every day. Make arrangements for all of these nutritional sources in the daily menu.
  • Growing Milk. Milk as one source of calcium is also important to consume Children under 5 years. At least Children under 5 years need 350 ml / 12 ounces per day. Milk growth is a complete milk nutrition that is able to meet the nutritional needs of children aged 12 months and over.

Nutrition Management Effort

Nutrition Management Effort for Children under 5 years is very important. Because :

1. The consequences of eating difficulties will obviously affect the nutritional state of a child.

2. So needed an effort to overcome this difficulty in eating. It may take practice, medication, psychological approaches, and other ways.

3. The characteristics of eating patterns Children under 5 years is difficult to eat, the appetite often changes, get bored quickly to eat while sitting need to play games.

            Nutrition management can be done in various ways, namely:

  • Develop good eating habits. Children are introduced early with diverse and well-nourished foods and regular diet.
  • Create a fun eating atmosphere.
  • Avoid foods that are too oily, junk food, preservatives.
  • Tell about good eating.


            From the above discussion, it can be concluded as follows:

  • Children under 5 years need a balanced nutrition intake because age Children under 5 years is a nutritious age. 
  • Good nutrition will affect both the growth and development of children under 5 years such as height and weight.
  • Malnutrition (less nutrient intake) can reduce the growth and development of Children under 5 years.
  • Food menu selection is balanced by taking into account the nutritional content present in it and avoiding the preserved foods.
  • The food menu needs to meet the healthy nutrients of the perfect 5 ie carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals.

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Young women need to understand the importance of nutrition for pregnancy. Especially those who are planning a pregnancy. So that the pregnancy is healthy and gives birth to a healthy baby too.

Understanding Nutrition

Nutrition is a process by which organisms use food normally consumed through digestion, absorption, transport, storage, metabolism and discharge of substances not used to sustain life. Growth and normal function of the organs, and produce energy.

Not a single type of food contains all the nutrients, which can make a person to live healthy, grow and productive. Therefore, everyone needs to consume a variety of foods, except infants aged 1-4 months who simply consume breast milk only. For infants aged 1-4 months, breast milk is the only single food that is important in the process of growing baby fair and healthy.

Diverse Foods

Consuming diverse foods is very beneficial for health, especially in pregnant women. Foods that are diverse are foods that contain many nutrients needed both quality and quantity. In the event of a deficiency in the completeness of a nutritional apparatus in the type of food will be supplemented by similar nutrients from other foods, so that diverse foods will ensure the adequacy of sources of energy substances, builders and regulators for pregnant women and fetus in the womb.

Balance Food and Nutrition for Pregnant Women

Food and nutrition is a balance diet that contains enough carbonhydrate and fat as a source of energy, protein as a source of builders, and vitamins and minerals as regulatory substances. Nutritional needs will increase during pregnancy, but not all nutritional needs increase.

   Basically the food menu in pregnant women is not much different from the menu before pregnancy. Therefore, it is expected that there is no difficulty in the menu settings during pregnancy. During pregnancy, expectant mothers need more nutrients in women who are not pregnant, because the food of pregnant women is needed for themselves and the fetus in it, if the fetal limited mother’s food will still absorb the mother’s food supply so that the mother becomes thin, weak, pale, broken teeth, hair loss and others (Purwita Sari, 2009).

Important Noticed

  1. Similarly, when eating a mother is less, fetal growth will be affected.
  2. Especially if the mother’s nutritional status in the period before pregnancy has been bad as well or malnutrision.
  3. This situation will result an abortion, LBW, preterm birth or even a born baby will die.
  4. At the time of delivery may result in prolonged labor, bleeding, infection, and other difficulties that may require surgery.
  5. Conversely, excessive food will lead to excessive weight gain, large babies, and can also lead to the occurrence of preeclampsy (toxicity of pregnancy).
  6. And if you eat less mother, then repaired after the baby born deficiency that is experienced when in the womb can not be completely repaired.

   Maternal food before and during pregnancy plays an important role in the availability of essential fatty acids in fatty tissue deposits of the mother. Type of fatty acids such as:

  1. Omega 3 fatty acids, linoleic fatty acids, consisting of eikosapentaenoate (EPA) and decosahecaquenoic acid (DHA). Omega 3 fatty acids in pregnant and lactating mothers affect the membrane of nerve cells, affecting brain function for growth and development of placenta and fetus. Also preventing asterosklerosis and coronary heart disease.
  2. Omega-6 fatty acids, linol fatty acids (LNAs), which in the body are converted to arachidonic fatty acids that help to grow and fetal babies as well as the fetal skin of mothers, fetuses and infants.

WHO’s News

  1. Maternal pregnancy should provide essential nutrients for the growth of children and themselves.
  2. Nutritional needs in pregnant women are receiving much attention from various committees across the country.
  3. In the developing countries including Indonesia, nutritional problems are still a major health problem and are the cause of maternal mortality during childbirth.
  4. Likewise during pregnancy, malnutrition becomes the most dangerous moment in her life.

Some negative facts

  1. In rural areas many pregnant women with malnutrition about 23%. 
  2. In general causes of malnutrition in pregnant women is to consume food that is not met by the recommended nutritional requirements.
  3. Also the distance of pregnancy and childbirth are too close.
  4. Pregnant women with low education level and less knowledge will cause maternal mortality to be high.

Thanks for reading.