BREASTFEEDING SKILL

Breastfeeding skill is very important for a mother. As important as keeping her baby stay healthy.  Many breastfeeding problems (nipple pain, small amounts of breast milk/food, or uncomfortable mothers in breastfeeding) can be solved by improving basic techniques in breastfeeding, especially in correctly positioning the mother and baby.

Mother’s Position

Sit down comfortably. Look for the most comfortable position when sitting on a chair, or rocking chair, or armchair. Even sitting on a mattress leaning against a wall or mattress.

Place the pillow behind your back, and under the arm that will provide support when the mother holds the baby. This is to get the best position and condition for breastfeeding process.

Use footstool or footing when the mother is sitting, especially when using a high enough chair.

Mother can also lean on the back in bed.  Keep in a position facing the baby by using pillows as a buffer head, neck, back upper legs.

Baby Position

Breastfeeding preparations are very good to do. By wearing simple clothes on babies or even not wearing clothes, to increase contact with mothers.

Lay the baby in the mother’s arms, with the position facing the breast. The position of the neck in the folds of the arm. The body lying along the arm and butt held by the hand.

After that turn the baby’s body in such a way that the baby’s position against the mother’s body.

The baby’s body position should be in perpendicular to the mother’s body, do not rotate the baby’s neck to reach the mother’s nipple.

If the baby’s position is not high, use a pillow to support the arm.

Position the baby’s arm well, the forearm is positioned under the breast and the upper arm when disturbed can be withheld using the thumb of the arms that carry.

Breast position

The first thing to do in preparing breast before breastfeeding. Manually massage the breast to get a few drops of breast milk on the nipple, this will moisturize the mother’s breast.

Hold the breast, the burden of the breast is held with the palms of the hands and fingers beneath and the thumbs on it.

Keep your fingers away from the areola area, so stay away from the area where the baby sucks milk, it aims to avoid contamination.

Starting breastfeeding:

Bring your baby’s mouth to the damp nipple, then massage the baby’s lips gently to stimulate the baby’s sucking reflexes.

When the baby’s mouth is open, immediately attach the baby’s mouth in the middle of the breast and close the baby tightly to the mother’s body.

Make sure the baby sucks up to the breast areola instead of the mother’s nipple, with this pain in the breast during breastfeeding can be avoided.

Make adjustments to the baby’s breathing rhythm.

When the baby has been sucking milk/breast food well then make sure we set the position of the breast well, hold the weight of the breast with the hand so that the breast weight does not entirely burden the baby’s mouth and lips.

The last important thing is when we will stop breastfeeding, do not pull the baby’s mouth from the breast when the baby is still sucking. So stop before the baby sucking and then keep the baby from the breast slowly, it aims to stop the breastfeeding does not hurt the breast, which can result in pain until breast infection.

Thanks for your attention.

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Drinking Water Treatment

Mineral water or water in the body among them serves to keep fresh, help digestion and remove toxins. However, you know, there are many benefits that are water from water, in addition to the pleasure of freshness. Drinking Water treatment is very important to keep the availability of fresh water for everyone to stay alive every day.

Many people who do not know the efficacy of water other than to eliminate thirst alone. Water can also cure various diseases in an easy and inexpensive way. The benefits of water are to facilitate the digestive system, helps slow the growth of cancer-causing substances, beauty treatments, for fertility, heart-healthy, as a drug stroke, relaxation effects, body straightening, fitter body, and body balancing.

Water Treatment is Growing Fast

            Water treatment is growing very fast, has changed the paradigm of life in the modern society. The use of uncooked drinking water is not a new thing anymore. The trend of instant living in all lines stimulates scientists from all over the world, to create practical technology, both in process and in the final use of the product, of course with the guarantee of quality standards and excellent health.

Healthy water according to the World Health Organization (WHO) is water that is free from any outbreaks of both visible and invisible germs. From the definition can be simplified that healthy water is water that does not cause a person when consumed it becomes ill. That can be interpreted as a sense of healthy water from the aspect of Microbiology, said Ir. Angga Yuhistira Aryanto, Deputy Quality Manager (Deputy MM) Technology Laboratory and Environmental Management Department of Industrial Engineering.

Apart from that aspect, healthy water must also be seen from the physical and chemical aspects. Physical aspect, according to him, healthy water can be tested by organoleptic test or can be done in a simple way that is by using our five senses. An organoleptic test can be demonstrated by watermarks that are odorless, tasteless and colorless or clear in appearance, obviously Ir. Anga.

            While from chemical aspect, healthy water can be seen the content of organic chemical elements and inorganic chemistry The easiest is to see the pH level and dissolved solids content. That’s according to him has been made easier by the government by making standards for drinking water.

There are several ways of drinking water treatment, among others, as follows

Natural Processing

Processing is done in the form of storage from water obtained from various sources, such as lake water, river water, well water and so on. In this storage, water is left for several hours in place. Then there will be a coagulation of substances contained in the water and finally formed deposits. The water will be clear because the particles present in the water will also settle.

1.Water Treatment by Screening

Simple water filtration can be done with gravel, fibers, and sand. High-tech sand filtering is done by PAM (Drinking Water Company) whose results can be consumed publicly.

2.Water Treatment by Adding Chemical Substances

The chemical used can be 2 kinds of chemicals that function for coagulation and ultimately accelerate the precipitation (eg alum). The second chemical is to disinfect (killing the seeds of the disease in the water, for example, chlorine (Cl).

3.Water Treatment with Air Flowing

The main purpose is to eliminate the unpleasant taste and odor, eliminating unnecessary gases, such as CO2 and also raising the acidity of water.

4.Water Treatment by Heating Up to Boiling

The goal is to kill germs found in water. Processing of this kind is more appropriate only for small consumption for example for household needs. Viewed from consumers, water treatment in principle can be classified into 2 namely:

  • Drinking Water Treatment for the Public
  • Rain Water Shelter. Rainwater can be accommodated in a dam (artificial lake) built on the participation of local communities. All the rainwater flowed into the lake through the water channels. Then around the lake is made a good pump or dug well to the public. Rainwater can also be accommodated with ferosemen tubs and nearby roofs are built to collect rainwater. Around the basin were made outlets for public water retrieval. The good rainwater from the well (lake) and the reservoir is bacteriologically not guaranteed for it then the obligations of families to cook it themselves for example by boiling the water.

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Causes of diarrhea

The causes of diarrhea are usually associated with an unclean environment. Also unhealthy environment. Environmental pollution caused by poor waste management. And the habit of defecating in rivers and open waterways is still comm

Understanding diarrhea

According to WHO (1999) clinically diarrhea is defined as

  1. more defecation than usual. More than three times a day, accompanied by consistent changes of stool (into liquid) with or without blood.
  2. Clinically differentiated between three kinds of diarrhea syndrome are acute, acute, dysentery and persistent diarrhea.

Meanwhile, according to the MOH RI (2005), diarrhea is a disease with signs of changes in the shape and consistency of the stool, which softens to melt and increases the frequency of defecation is usually three or more times a day.

Acute diarrhea is limited as an increase in frequency, increased fluid, or increased amount of stool removed, but it is very relative to the patient’s habit and lasts no more than one week. If diarrhea lasts between one to two weeks then it is said that prolonged diarrhea (Soegijanto, 2002)

Causes of diarrhea

Diarrhea occurs due to stimulation of the autonomic nerves in the intestinal wall causing reflex to accelerate peristaltic intestine, this stimulation can be caused by:

  1. Infections by pathogenic bacteria, eg E.Colie bacteria
  2. Infection by typhoid (occasionally) and cholera bacteria
  3. Infection by viruses, such as stomach influenza and ‘travelers diarrhea
  4. As a result of worm diseases (roundworms, tapeworms)
  5. Food and drink poisoning
  6. Nutritional disorders
  7. The effect of certain enzymes
  8. The influence of nerves (shock, fear, etc.)

Some behaviors that may increase the risk of diarrhea in infants, namely (MOH RI, 2007):

  1. Not fully breastfeeding the first 4-6 months of life. Infants without breastfeeding are at greater risk of developing diarrhea than full-breasted infants, and possibly more severe dehydration.
  2. Using a bottle of milk, the use of this bottle facilitates contamination by germs because bottles are difficult to clean. Use of bottles that are not clean or have been used for hours is left in a hot environment, often causing severe intestinal infections because the bottles can be contaminated by germs/bacteria that cause diarrhea. So that toddlers who use these bottles are at risk of infected diarrhea.
  3. Store food cooked at room temperature, if food is stored for several hours at room temperature, food will be reflected and germ will multiply.
  4. Using contaminated drinking water.
  5. Do not wash hands after defecation and after disposing of stool or before eating and feeding the child.
  6. Do not throw stool properly, often assume that the stool is not dangerous, but actually contains a virus or bacteria in large quantities. In addition, animal feces can also cause infection in humans.

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The Diarrheal Disease

The Diarrheal disease is one of the most environmentally-based diseases.  It is still the biggest health problem in Indonesia. It is due to the poor condition of basic sanitation, physical environment and low behavior of people to live clean and healthy, and there are many factors that cause diarrheal disease.

Environmental hygiene

Environmental hygiene is very influential on health in general. The facts show us that:

1. The number of environmental diseases that attack the community due to lack of clean surrounding environment.

2. And also bad habits that pollute the environment. This can cause diseases carried by impurities in the environment freely either directly or indirectly through intermediaries.

3. Diarrhea is a disease that has been known since the time of Hippocrates. Until now, diarrhea is still one of the main health problems of Indonesian society.

4. Diarrhea is a dangerous disease because it can lead to death. Also can cause extraordinary events (KLB).

5. The main cause of death of diarrhea is dehydration that is as a result of the loss of fluid and electrolyte salts in stool diarrhea (MOH, 1998). The state of dehydration if not immediately helped 50-60% of them can die.

6. About the management and prevention of diarrhea, the most important is the parent role.

7. The level of knowledge of parents about diarrhea in infants is very influential in an arrangement and prevention of diarrhea itself.

8. Knowledge of parents with the incidence of diarrhea in infants can be obtained from various sources.  Such as mass media, counseling health teams, the environment and from various other sources.

During this time the perception that often happened in the community about diarrhea is due to the removal of waste substances.  The waste does not require treatment because it will heal by itself. Or it may also appear perception if the toddler does not go away from diarrhea. Then the mother’s orientation always wants her child immediately can defecate normally suggestions without taking into account the adverse effects of diarrhea drugs that are not an appropriate use.

Human behavior factor

Human behavior factor itself is less understanding of the importance of a clean and healthy life. Also due to the poor sanitary conditions basic physical environment. And low attitudes and behavior of people to live clean and healthy so it is needed a study to evaluate the level of knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of society in the prevention of home diarrhea.

Therefore, by studying the behavior of this society is expected to be a guide in our daily lives of the importance of clean.  And the importance of healthy living. And also the importance of immediately take treatment measures for people who have been infected with diarrhea.

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