THE BREAST CANCER STAGES

The Breast Cancer is one of the most dangerous cancers in the world. The disease makes the life become unhappy  for the sufferers. But Breast Cancer is not coming suddenly. There are signs that can be destroyed earlier before become dangerous.

Breast cancer is also a frightening disease for sufferers. But breast cancer can be overcome properly if anticipated early. For that girls and women need to be given sufficient information to avoid this disease.

There are several categories of breast cancer stages. This is supposed to show the severity of the disease in a patient. 

The Stages 

The tumor has stage I-IV depending on size, affected lymph node, and metastasis (Other stages are expressed in TNM symbols: T = primary tumor, N = involved lymph node, M = metastasis).

The following is an explanation of the stage of breast cancer, namely:

  • Stage I: Small tumor less than 2 cm. Negative lymph node. There are no detected metastases.
  • Stage II: Tumor larger than 2 cm but less than 5 cm. Non-fixated lymph node negative or positive. Also no detected metastases.
  • Stage III: Tumor larger than 5 cm, or tumor of any size with a skin invasion or chest wall or positive fixed lymph nodes in the clavicular area without evidence of metastasis.
  • Stage IV: The tumor of any size with positive or negative lymph nodes with distant metastases.

The Management

  • Modified radical mastectomy: the entire breast tissue is removed together with the axillary lymph nodes.
  • breast-conservation surgery: segmental lumpectomy, or quadranectomy, and axillary dyslexery followed by radiation therapy against residual microscopic disease.
  • Mastectomy provides the maximum chance of removal of affected tumors and nodes.
  • A series of external beam radiation therapy on tumor mass to reduce the chances of recurrence and eradication of residual cancer.
  • Chemotherapy is very important for the eradication of the spread of micrometastases of the disease, eg, Cytoxan (C), Methotrexate (M), Fluorouracil (F), and Adriamycin (A).
  • CMF or CAF regimens are a frequent treatment protocol.
  • Autologous bone marrow transplants (ABMT) today often indicate an increase in their use. The use of growth factors to stimulate bone marrow has a high mortality decrease.
  • Hormonal therapy based on estrogen and progesterone receptor index.
  • Tamoxifen is the principal hormonal agent used to suppress hormone-dependent tumors.
  • Other hormonal preparations are Megace, DES, Halotestin, and Cytadren.
  • Elective reconstructive surgery provides psychological benefits. But is contraindicated if cancer is a local, metastatic, or inflammatory stage.

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