Cure and Treatment of diarrhea

Really needs more attention for the principle to cure and treatment of diarrhea sufferers. Cure and treatment must be done patiently.

* Give additional liquid (as much as the child wants)

* In infants, breastfeeding is the main step of giving additional fluid. Give ASI more often and longer / more.

* Give additional ORS, liquid food (vegetable soup, starch) or boiled water.

* If the child vomits when given a liquid intake, stop 10 minutes then repeat again with a slower frequency.

* Continue feeding

The Drugs

The drugs that are given to treat diarrhea can be:

  1. Chemotherapy
  2. Obstipansia
  3. Spasmolitik
  4. Probiotics

Prior to being given the right medication, the first aid of diarrhea treatment is to overcome excessive fluid or electrolyte (dehydration) removal, especially in infants and elderly patients, as dehydration can lead to death. Symptoms of dehydration:

  1. Thirsty
  2. Dry mouth and lips
  3. Skin becomes wrinkled (loss of turgor)
  4. Reduced urine
  5. Weight loss and
  6. restless

First Aids

first aid is given oralit is a mixture of:

  • 3.5 gram NaCl
  • KCl 1.5 gram
  • NaHCO3 2.5 grams
  • Glucose 20 grams

Or by giving an intra venous infusion solution such as:

  • 9% NaCl solution (normal saline)
  • Na solution. compound lactate (ringer lactate)

Afterward, other medications may be selected based on the type of cause of diarrhea through careful examination.

1) Chemotherapy

            For causal therapy that destroys disease-causing bacteria sulfonamide  antibiotic drug class

2) Obstipansia

            For symptomatic therapy with the aim to stop diarrhea, namely by:

  1. Suppressing bowel peristalsis (loperamide)
  2. Shrink the intestinal membrane or adstringent (tannin)
  3. Giving adsorbents to absorb toxins produced by bacteria or other diarrhea-causing toxins (carbo adsorbent, kaolin)
  4. Provision of mucilage to protect the lining of the injured bowel

3) Spasmolitik

            Substances that can relax the convulsions of abdominal muscles (abdominal pain) in diarrhea (atropine sulfate)

4) Probiotics to increase endurance

Lactobacillus and bifidobacteria (called Lactid Acid Bacteria / LAB) are probiotics that can produce natural antibiotics that can prevent/inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria. LAB can produce lactic acid which causes intestinal pH into acid, the peristalsisacidic atmosphere will inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria. This LAB can help strengthen and improve baby’s digestion, prevent diarrhea.

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Malnutrition In Children Under 5 Years

Malnutrition is still prevalent in developing countries such as Indonesia. For children under 5 years of age, it will greatly affect their physical growth and development. Therefore, it is necessary to have an integral effort to overcome malnutrition.

Children who are poorly geared for growth and developmental nutrition are inhibited than children who have sufficient nutritional intake. For example, growth includes height, weight Children under 5 years low, brain development, the level of intelligence and psychic are also low and susceptible to infection.

Causes of the malnutrition

Many things that cause the malnutrition in Children under 5 years. These factors are as follows:

  • Economic factors. Parents Children under 5 years old are unable to provide good nutrition due to cost issues.
  • Educational factors. Limited knowledge of good nutritional intake can lead to errors in child feeding. Parents may provide food intake to children in large quantities but without regard to the nutritional content in the food.
  • Environmental factors. If a family lives in an environment that is less attention to nutrition intake, it does not close the possibility of families participating in the habits surrounding environment.
  • According to Dwijayanti (2011: 7), less nutrition can also be caused by (1) Inability to metabolize nutrients. (2) Inability to get the appropriate nutrients from food. (3) Acceleration of excretion of nutrients from the body.
  • Pain or disease that increases the body’s need for nutrients.

Balance Menu For Children under 5 years

            A balanced nutritional intake for children under 5 years is very necessary. Not good if the nutritional intake is less or excessive, it is necessary to balance it tailored to the needs.

Balanced Menu for Children under 5 years according to  Asfuah (2010: 136) namely:

  • Sugar and Salt. Consumption of salt for Children under 5 years no more than 1/6 of the maximum number of adults a day or less than 1 gram. Pay attention to food Children under 5 years old mothers because the adult food is not necessarily suitable for him. Sometimes the mother’s food is too much salt or sugar, or even contain preservatives or artificial coloring.
  • Eating Portion. The child’s meal portion is also different from that of an adult. They need nutritious food sources of complete nutrients in smaller amounts but often.
  • Energy and Nutrition Requirement. Food ingredients of energy sources such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats and vitamins, minerals and fiber must be consumed by children every day. Make arrangements for all of these nutritional sources in the daily menu.
  • Growing Milk. Milk as one source of calcium is also important to consume Children under 5 years. At least Children under 5 years need 350 ml / 12 ounces per day. Milk growth is a complete milk nutrition that is able to meet the nutritional needs of children aged 12 months and over.

Nutrition Management Effort

Nutrition Management Effort for Children under 5 years is very important. Because :

1. The consequences of eating difficulties will obviously affect the nutritional state of a child.

2. So needed an effort to overcome this difficulty in eating. It may take practice, medication, psychological approaches, and other ways.

3. The characteristics of eating patterns Children under 5 years is difficult to eat, the appetite often changes, get bored quickly to eat while sitting need to play games.

            Nutrition management can be done in various ways, namely:

  • Develop good eating habits. Children are introduced early with diverse and well-nourished foods and regular diet.
  • Create a fun eating atmosphere.
  • Avoid foods that are too oily, junk food, preservatives.
  • Tell about good eating.

Conclusion

            From the above discussion, it can be concluded as follows:

  • Children under 5 years need a balanced nutrition intake because age Children under 5 years is a nutritious age. 
  • Good nutrition will affect both the growth and development of children under 5 years such as height and weight.
  • Malnutrition (less nutrient intake) can reduce the growth and development of Children under 5 years.
  • Food menu selection is balanced by taking into account the nutritional content present in it and avoiding the preserved foods.
  • The food menu needs to meet the healthy nutrients of the perfect 5 ie carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals.

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THE IMPORTANCE OF NUTRITION FOR PREGNANCY

Young women need to understand the importance of nutrition for pregnancy. Especially those who are planning a pregnancy. So that the pregnancy is healthy and gives birth to a healthy baby too.

Understanding Nutrition

Nutrition is a process by which organisms use food normally consumed through digestion, absorption, transport, storage, metabolism and discharge of substances not used to sustain life. Growth and normal function of the organs, and produce energy.

Not a single type of food contains all the nutrients, which can make a person to live healthy, grow and productive. Therefore, everyone needs to consume a variety of foods, except infants aged 1-4 months who simply consume breast milk only. For infants aged 1-4 months, breast milk is the only single food that is important in the process of growing baby fair and healthy.

Diverse Foods

Consuming diverse foods is very beneficial for health, especially in pregnant women. Foods that are diverse are foods that contain many nutrients needed both quality and quantity. In the event of a deficiency in the completeness of a nutritional apparatus in the type of food will be supplemented by similar nutrients from other foods, so that diverse foods will ensure the adequacy of sources of energy substances, builders and regulators for pregnant women and fetus in the womb.

Balance Food and Nutrition for Pregnant Women

Food and nutrition is a balance diet that contains enough carbonhydrate and fat as a source of energy, protein as a source of builders, and vitamins and minerals as regulatory substances. Nutritional needs will increase during pregnancy, but not all nutritional needs increase.

   Basically the food menu in pregnant women is not much different from the menu before pregnancy. Therefore, it is expected that there is no difficulty in the menu settings during pregnancy. During pregnancy, expectant mothers need more nutrients in women who are not pregnant, because the food of pregnant women is needed for themselves and the fetus in it, if the fetal limited mother’s food will still absorb the mother’s food supply so that the mother becomes thin, weak, pale, broken teeth, hair loss and others (Purwita Sari, 2009).

Important Noticed

  1. Similarly, when eating a mother is less, fetal growth will be affected.
  2. Especially if the mother’s nutritional status in the period before pregnancy has been bad as well or malnutrision.
  3. This situation will result an abortion, LBW, preterm birth or even a born baby will die.
  4. At the time of delivery may result in prolonged labor, bleeding, infection, and other difficulties that may require surgery.
  5. Conversely, excessive food will lead to excessive weight gain, large babies, and can also lead to the occurrence of preeclampsy (toxicity of pregnancy).
  6. And if you eat less mother, then repaired after the baby born deficiency that is experienced when in the womb can not be completely repaired.

   Maternal food before and during pregnancy plays an important role in the availability of essential fatty acids in fatty tissue deposits of the mother. Type of fatty acids such as:

  1. Omega 3 fatty acids, linoleic fatty acids, consisting of eikosapentaenoate (EPA) and decosahecaquenoic acid (DHA). Omega 3 fatty acids in pregnant and lactating mothers affect the membrane of nerve cells, affecting brain function for growth and development of placenta and fetus. Also preventing asterosklerosis and coronary heart disease.
  2. Omega-6 fatty acids, linol fatty acids (LNAs), which in the body are converted to arachidonic fatty acids that help to grow and fetal babies as well as the fetal skin of mothers, fetuses and infants.

WHO’s News

  1. Maternal pregnancy should provide essential nutrients for the growth of children and themselves.
  2. Nutritional needs in pregnant women are receiving much attention from various committees across the country.
  3. In the developing countries including Indonesia, nutritional problems are still a major health problem and are the cause of maternal mortality during childbirth.
  4. Likewise during pregnancy, malnutrition becomes the most dangerous moment in her life.

Some negative facts

  1. In rural areas many pregnant women with malnutrition about 23%. 
  2. In general causes of malnutrition in pregnant women is to consume food that is not met by the recommended nutritional requirements.
  3. Also the distance of pregnancy and childbirth are too close.
  4. Pregnant women with low education level and less knowledge will cause maternal mortality to be high.

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Principles Of Nutrition In Children Under 5 Years

Nutrition is a process of using food normally consumed by an organism through the process of digestion, absorption, transport, storage, metabolism and expenditure of substances not used to maintain the normal life, growth, and function of the organs, and generate energy. Proverawati; Asfuah; 2010:1)

Nutrition is Very Important

Nutrition is a very important part of growth and development. It is because:

1. Nutrition in it has a close connection with health and intelligence. Therefore, nutrition becomes one of the determinants of the quality of human resources.

2. A good nutritional status in children under 5 years should get more attention. Because when the nutritional status of children under 5 years is bad, can inhibit the physical growth, mental and ability to think and of course will decrease work productivity.   

3. The type of food and the way it is given also needs to be in accordance with the circumstances of body growth and development of intelligence. Thus, will be obtained a balanced nutrition for Children under 5 years. Basically, the human caloric needs vary according to age, sex, activity, weight, height etc.

Children under 5 years of age 1-5 years can be divided into two, namely:

  1. children aged over one year to three years known as “toddlers”
  2. And children aged more than three years to five years known as the “preschool” age. Children under five years are a group that shows the rapid growth of the body but this group is the most common group suffering from malnutrition (Proverawati, Asfuah, 2010, 127)

Carrying out the best feeding to Children under 5 years aims to: 

  1. Provide adequate nutrition for the needs, maintain health and restore it if ill, perform various activities, growth, and physical and mental development.
  2. Educate good habits about eating, liking and determining the food needed.

Important Nutrition Of Children under 5 years

  1. Nutritional Needs in Children under 5 years need more nutrients because Children under 5 years (1-5 years of age) is a golden period.
  2. Period of life is very important for physical and mental development, at this time also Children under 5 years began to do and find new things. In this case, good nutrition plays an important role.
  3. No giving food intake containing substances that are not good, such as foods containing preservatives, artificial colorings, artificial sweeteners, food delights and the like, it will look its effect on the health of the body.
  4. Thus, the provision of food with a balanced nutritional fulfillment is the right way to maintain health and growth of children under 5 years. So, pay attention to the good diet for Children under 5 years.

The essential nutrients

Among the essential nutrients for food intake for children under 5 years are as follows:

(1) Carbohydrates are easily available energy sources in every food and should be available in sufficient quantities because carbohydrate deficiency can cause hunger and weight loss if the number of carbohydrates in high amounts can cause an increase in weight or obesity. Sufficient amounts of carbohydrates can be obtained from milk, grains, fruits, flour, tubers, wheat and others.

(2) Protein should be consumed in a balanced way because protein is required for the growth and development of the child. Protein is used after carbohydrates and fats are inadequate in the body supply. Protein sources can be obtained from chicken, beans, milk, yogurt, bread, and others.

(3) Fat is the main energy source for growth and physical activity for Children under 5 years. Fat member tasty taste, satiety, and delicious food. Food sources derived from fat such as meat, butter, mayonnaise, cheese, milk.

(4) Vitamins and minerals are recommended to always be served in the daily diet. Because the vitamin is not produced by the body in large quantities. Vitamins are helpful in fighting free radicals. Vitamins can be found in bread, fruits, vegetables, milk, meat.

The function of several food nutrients according to Dwijayanti (2011: 31) as follows:

(1) Carbohydrates serve to conserve protein during energy production. And help burn fat to be more efficient and more perfect. Become a source of quick energy, help the normal function of the intestine, as laksatif helps calcium absorbs.

(2) Proteins function for growth, repair, maintenance of structures and tissues, hormone formation, helps transport other substances in the blood, as well as energy sources.

(3) Fats function is to produce energy for the body, facilitate the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, supply essential fatty acids, support and protect internal organs, help regulate temperature, lubricate body tissues.

(4) Vitamins and minerals function in antioxidants, coenzymes, food additives, medicinal ingredients

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THE DRINKING WATER RESOURCES

The source of drinking water from time to time decreases. It is due to illegal logging of forests almost evenly everywhere. This has a direct impact on the depletion of underground drinking water supplies. If the dry season comes in many villages and the area will experience drought. Therefore the community must immediately stop illegal logging with the police and security forces. Besides making efforts to conserve drinking water sources and replanting forests.

River

River water flows into a reservoir I through a coarse filter that can separate solids in large particles. The reservoir I was given a filter consisting of fibers, sand, gravel and so forth. Then the water flowed to the second container. Here put alum and chlor. From here it is only flowed to the inhabitants or taken directly to the locals themselves. To be free of bacteria when water will be drunk still require boiled first.

Springs

Springs that naturally arise in the villages need to be managed by protecting the springs so as not to be contaminated with feces. From here the water can be channeled to people’s homes through bamboo pipes or residents can directly take it themselves to the source that has been protected.

Wells

Well water pumps, especially deep well water pumps are sufficient to meet health requirements. But these pump wells in rural areas are still expensive. Besides that technology is still considered high for rural communities. More common in rural areas is a dug well.

            In order for the well water of this excavation pump is not polluted by the dirt around it, the need for the following conditions:

  1. There should be a good lip so that when the rainy season arrives, groundwater will not enter into it.
  2. At the top of approximately 3 m from the surface of the ground must be walled, so that water from above cannot contaminate the well water.
  3. Need to be given a layer of gravel at the bottom of the well to reduce turbidity.
  4. Instead of gravel, into this well can be incorporated a substance that can form a precipitate, such as aluminum sulfate (alum).
  5. Cleaning the cloudy well water can be done by filtering it with a self-made filter from a used tin.

Rain Water

            The household need for water can also be done through rainwater catchment. Each family can do rainwater catching from its roof through the flow of gutters. In the rainy season this is not a problem but in the dry season may be a problem. To cope with the family requires a larger rainwater reservoir it is needed having a reservoir for the dry season.