Diarrheal disease (Transmission and Symptoms)

Unclean snacks are the main factor causing diarrhea disease. In Indonesia, diarrheal disease is a common digestive disorder for the community.

Many of those who think diarrhea is a trivial disease, but not many know that diarrhea often causes sufferers to lose their lives because of late medical treatment.

Severe diarrhea disease causes many Indonesian lives. This disease is caused by digestive disorders due to bacterial virus infection. The most common diarrhea-causing bacteria include rotavirus, Shigella, Cryptosporidium, norovirus, E. coli, and Giardia intestinalis.

Diarrhea is characterized by abdominal pain or cramps, loss of appetite, continuous thirst, soft or runny bowel movements, and a desire to go back and forth to the toilet.

Transmission of Diarrhea

Transmission of diarrheal diseases is usually contacted with infected stools directly, such as:

  • Contaminated food and drink, whether contaminated by insects or contamination by dirty hands or tools on the table.
  • Play with contaminated toys, especially in infants often enter hands, toys, or others into the mouth. Cryptosporidium
  • Use of contaminated water sources and not cooking water properly.
  • Washing and disposing of unsanitary bottles.
  • Do not wash hands thoroughly after defecation or clean the stools of infected children, thus contaminating furniture and tools held.

The symptoms and effects of diarrhea

Ministry of Health of Indonesia Republic (2000), classified diarrhea into four groups, namely:

  • Acute diarrhea: diarrhea lasting less than fourteen days (generally less than seven days),
  • dysentery; namely diarrhea accompanied by blood in his stool,
  • persistent diarrhea; ie diarrhea lasting more than fourteen days continuously,
  • Diarrhea with other problems; children with diarrhea (acute and persistent diarrhea) may also be accompanied by other diseases such as fever, malnutrition or other illnesses.

Acute diarrhea may result in:

  • lose a lot of water and electrolytes and acid-base disorders that cause dehydration, metabolic acidosis, and hypokalemia,
  • Impaired blood circulation, maybe a hypovolemic shock as a result of diarrhea with or without vomiting,
  • Nutrition disorders that occur due to excessive fluid release due to diarrhea and vomiting. 

Symptoms of Diarrhea

  • baby or child becomes whiny and restless. Her body temperature rises
  • baby stools are dilute, slimy, or bleeding
  • the color of greenish feces due to mixed with bile
  • their anus blisters
  • nutritional disorders due to lack of intake (food intake)
  • maybe vomiting before or after diarrhea
  • hypoglycemia (decreased blood sugar)
  • Risk of dehydration (lack of fluids)

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NUTRITIONAL BALANCE FOR A PREGNANT WOMAN

To maintain the nutritional balance for pregnant women is very important. The condition of pregnant women is very different from those who are not pregnant. Especially in terms of daily food consumption. Because not only to fulfill nutrition for herself, but also for her fetus.  Actually, in regulating the intake or food menu, there are things that need to be noticed during pregnancy, for example:

  1. Avoid consuming canned food, excessive sweet foods, and foods that are not fresh
  2. Pregnant women should eat regularly to keep the body so that the fetus in the bladder can absorb food from his mother well
  3. Dishes are composed of nutritious and protein-rich foods
  4. Use a wide variety of nutrient-rich foods by buying and choosing fresh, fully nutritious foods (protein, fat, vitamins)
  5. Reduce the foods that contain lots of gas such as mustard, cabbage, and others
  6. Avoid smoking and drinking like alcohol and others.

Food menu for pregnant women, basically not much different from the menu before pregnancy. So there should be no difficulty in the food menu settings during pregnancy.

Sample menu of the day in pregnant women

  • Grocery Portion dish of the day type of dish
  • Rice 5 + 1 serving Morning food: 1.5 portion rice (150 gram) with fish/meat 1 medium cut (40 grams), medium soy steak 2 pieces (50 grams), 1 cup bowl
  • Vegetable 3 bowls
  • Fruit 4 pieces
  • Meat 3 pieces and fruit 1 medium cut.
  • Eating interlude: 1 cup milk and 1 medium piece of fruit
  • Lunch: 3 servings of rice (300 grams), with a side dish, vegetable, and fruit equal to morning.
  • Meat 3 pieces
  • 2 cup milk
  • Oil 5 teaspoons

Nutrition of Pregnant Women

  1. Food substances are very important for pregnant women because they work for fetal development and growth.
  2. Therefore, the need for food substances must always be met in the body of pregnant women.
  3. It is because the fetus requires nutrients for its development.

According to Dr. Tina Wardani Wisesa, pregnancy is very meaningful to women’s lives. Because it can affect the physiological and psychological conditions. During pregnancy, this will decrease appetite due to physical and physical factors that often appear early in pregnancy. To overcome this, you should eat in small quantities but often.

The food eaten should be no shortage and also the excess. However, that must have many nutrients, protein and enough vitamins and minerals that lives in the body of pregnant women. Nutrition needs will continue to increase, especially after entering the second trimester of pregnancy. Because at that moment, the growth of the fetus is very fast and the mother’s weight goes up and down quickly. In the last two months of pregnancy, the baby’s brain develops very quickly, because in this period babies need nutrients for the development of the brain and nerve tissue.

Things to watch out for, although increased appetite is to stick to a balanced diet with a balanced diet by avoiding high-calorie foods. , be avoided by pregnant women because of the possibility of carrying seeds of certain diseases or parasites that can harm the fetus.

            Things to consider in the fulfillment of pregnant women’s nutrients are:

  1. Mothers should eat regularly three times a day.
  2. The dish should be composed of nutritious food ingredients consisting of: staple food, side dishes, vegetables and fruits and drink 1 cup of milk every day.
  3. Using a variety of existing foods.
  4. Choosing a variety of fresh food.

Usefulness of food for pregnant women

1) For the growth of the fetus in the womb

2) To maintain the health and strength of the body for the mother herself

3) In order for the wounds of labor to heal quickly

4) Useful for backing up for lactation.

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THE DANGERS OF CIGARETTES FOR HEALTH


The community must know about the dangers of cigarettes for health. And the government must always drive anti-cigarette campaigns to the community. The benefits of the tobacco industry are very small compared to the adverse effects on health. And more tragically, cigarettes will damage the potential of the younger generation. Besides that, cigarette addicts will be more easily tempted to use drugs.

Understanding Cigarettes

  1. A cigarette is a paper-sized slender of 70 to 120 mm long with a diameter of about 10 mm containing tobacco leaves that have been chopped.
  2. By burning cigarettes at one end and allowed to burn so that the smoke can be inhaled through the mouth at the other end.
  3. Cigarettes are dangerous & addictive products (causing dependence).
  4. In the cigarette, there are 4000 dangerous chemicals 69 of which are carcinogenic (can cause cancer).
  5. Hazardous substances contained in cigarettes include tar, carbon monoxide, cyanide, arsenic, formaldehyde, nitrosamine, and others.

Types of smokers


Based on the type of smokers can be divided into:

  1. Active smoker
    They have gotten used to and actually smoked cigarettes and paid for the consequences themselves.
  2. Passive smoker
    They actually do not smoke but because there are other people who smoke nearby then they automatically participate in the smoking cigarette with all the consequences.
    Based on the number of smokers divided into:
  3. Light smokers.
    Smokers who smoke or spend about 1-10 cigarettes per day.
  4. Medium smokers.
    Smokers who spend about 10-20 cigarettes per day.
  5. Heavy smokers.
    Smokers who spend more than 20 cigarettes per day.

Substances contained in smoking

  1. Nicotine
    This substance contains opium can cause a person addicted to keeping smokes cigarettes.
    Influence on the human body
    a. Causing addiction or dependence damages brain tissue
    b. Cause blood rapidly freezes
    c. Hardened artery walls
  2. Tar
    The basic ingredients of making the asphalt that can stick to the lungs and can cause irritation and even cancer
    Influence on the human body
    a. Kill the cells in the bloodstream
    b. Increase the production of mucus in the lungs
    c. Causes lung cancer
  3. Carbon Monoxide
    Gas that can cause heart disease because this gas can bind oxygen in the body.
    Influence on the human body
    a. Binds hemoglobin, so the body is deprived of oxygen
    b. blocking transport in the blood
  4. Carcinogenic substances
    Influence on the human body
    It triggers the growth of cancer cells in the body
  5. Irritants
    Influence for human body
    a. To pollute the airways and airbags in the lungs
    b. Causes a cough.
    As we know there are 4000 toxic chemicals in a cigarette. 40 of them are harmful substances such as hydrogen cyanide (HCN), arsenic, ammonia, polonium, and carbon monoxide (CO). This chemical is composed of 85% gas components and particles.


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THE PROBLEM OF OBESITY

Today the problem of obesity is a global problem that engulfs the world community in both developed and developing countries including Indonesia. Lifestyle changes including the tendency to consume foods that contain high fat are factors that support the occurrence of overweight and obesity that leads to the problem of obesity. There are various efforts to slimming the body, for example by regulating food, changing lifestyles, administering drugs and surgery to reduce fat or remove part of the intestine. But the most important thing is the behavior of healthy living every day.

Definition of Obesity

Obesity or obesity has different meanings for everyone. Sometimes we are often confused with the notion of obesity and overweight, even though both terms have different meanings. Obesity is a condition of excess body weight due to the accumulation of fat, for men and women each of which exceeds 20% and 25% of body weight and can endanger health. While overweight (overweight, overweight) is a condition where a person’s body weight exceeds normal body weight. Doctors have their own definition of obesity, including:
• A condition where body fat is in excessive amounts
• A chronic treatable disease
• An epidemic (epidemic)
• A condition that is associated with other diseases and can reduce the quality of life
• Handling obesity requires very high maintenance costs

Types of Obesity

Type in obesity can be divided into 2 classifications, namely the type of obesity based on body shape and type of obesity based on the state of fat cells. Type of Obesity Based on Body Shape:

a. Apple type obesity (Apple Shape). This type is usually found in men. Where fat accumulates around the stomach. Health risks for this type are higher compared to pear (Gynoid) types.
b. Pear (Gynoid) type of obesity
This type tends to be owned by women, the fat is stored around the hips and buttocks. The risk for diseases of the gynoid type is generally small.
c. Ovid Type (Fruit Box Shape)
Characteristics of this type are “large in all parts of the body”. The Ovid type is generally found in people who are genetically obese

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Adverse effects of cigarette smoke

The public need to know the adverse effects of cigarette smoke.  Actually, Adverse effects of cigarette smoke on school children and teenagers and pregnant women.
Cigarette smoke is very bad for school children and teenagers and pregnant women because it can interfere with the health of the fetus in the womb. The adverse effects of cigarette smoke not only endanger the health of the smoker himself, but also other people around him who accidentally smoke cigarette smoke.

The Diseases 


School children and teenagers exposed to cigarette smoke are susceptible to exposure:
• Respiratory tract infections (bronchitis, pneumonia, and lung infections).
• Sudden asthma disorders.
• Ear infections.
• A chronic cough.
• Lymphoma.
• Blood cancer.
• Brain tumor.
• Weakened body resistance.
Sucking cigarette smoke during pregnancy can cause:
• Babies born prematurely.
• Baby’s weight at low birth.
• Babies die suddenly.
• Mental disability.
• Inability to learn.
• ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome).


Efforts to prevent the bad effects of cigarette smoke on passive smokers?
The more often we are exposed to cigarette smoke, the higher the risk of the disease.
Effective efforts that can be done is to distance yourself and your family from cigarette smoke. Ask that a smoker not smoke around other people such as inside the house, or in a public place. At the mosque, at the market, on the bus, at the public transport stop, at the terminal.
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Prevention Efforts

The Lung Cancer

Lung cancer is a condition in which cancer cells grow uncontrollably in the respiratory organs, namely the lungs. Lung cancer is the most common type of cancer. especially among smokers. this disease attacks many active and passive smokers.
In the early stages of the disease, there are no clear signs or symptoms of lung cancer. But then symptoms such as coughing continuously to experience coughing up blood, always feeling out of breath, fatigue without reason, and weight loss will appear.

The Types of Lung Cancer

There are two types of primary lung cancer based on the type of cell:

  1. lung cancer / SCLC (small-cell lung cancer)
  2. lung cancer / NSCLC non-small-cell lung cancer. Non-small cell lung cancer is four times more likely to occur than small cell lung cancer.

Small cell lung cancer attacks heavy smokers. The spread of cancer cells is faster than non-small cell lung cancer.

The Risk factor

Smoking is a major cause of lung cancer. The highest risk of developing lung cancer is active smokers. 85 percent of lung cancer cases are related to smoking habits. This means that not every smoker will develop lung cancer. and conversely, non-smokers are also likely to develop lung cancer, even though it is lower in number.

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Bad Impact of Obesity

There are some bad Impacts of Obesity that usually appear after a long time unhealthy habits of consuming foods:

1. Excessive accumulation of fat under the diaphragm and inside the chest wall can compress the lungs.

2. So that respiratory problems and shortness of breath arise, even though the patient only has a mild activity.

3. Respiratory problems can occur during sleep and cause a temporary cessation of breathing (sleep apnea). As a result, during the day sufferers often feel sleepy.

4. Obesity can cause a variety of orthopedic problems, including lower back pain and worsen osteoarthritis (especially in the hip, knee and ankle area). Also sometimes skin disorders are found.

5. A person suffering from obesity has a relatively narrow body surface compared to his weight, so that body heat cannot be disposed of efficiently and sweat more. Edema is often found (swelling due to the accumulation of fluid) in the limbs and ankles.

Factors That Cause Obesity

  1. Scientifically, obesity results from consuming more calories than is needed by the body. The cause of the imbalance between intake and burning of calories is still unclear.
  2. The occurrence of obesity involves several factors:
    a. Food Factors
    If someone consumes food with the energy content that is needed by the body, then there is no energy stored. Conversely, if you consume food with more energy than your body needs, the energy will be stored, as energy reserves, especially as fat as described above.
    b. Heredity Factor
    Research in humans and animals shows that obesity occurs because of factors of gene and environmental interactions.
    c. Hormone Factors
    Decreased thyroid hormone in the body due to deterioration of thyroid gland function will affect metabolism where the ability to use energy will decrease.
    d. Psychological Factors
    In some individuals will eat more than usual if they feel the need for a special need for emotional security (security food).
    e. Inappropriate Lifestyle (Life Style)
    Global socioeconomic, technological and information progress has led to lifestyle changes that include thought patterns and attitudes, which can be seen from eating habits and physical activity patterns.
    f. Use of Medicines
    Side effects of some drugs can cause weight gain, such as contraceptive drugs.

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Springs Conservation of Functions Benefits

Springs conservation is needed for human survival. Because humans really need clean water to stay alive and healthy.  Springs conservation must be done immediately and cannot be delayed anymore. not only humans who need water, but all living things that exist today and in the future all need it. Water is a substance or matter or element that is important to all life forms that are known to date on earth. 

The Facts to remember

  1. The human body consists of 55% to 78% water, depending on the size of the body.
  2. In order to function properly, the human body needs between one and seven liters of water daily to avoid dehydration (the exact amount depends on the level of activity, temperature, humidity, and several other factors).
  3. Most people believe that humans need 8-10 glasses (about two liters) per day.
  4. But the results of research published in the University of Pennsylvania in 2008 showed that the consumption of a number of 8 glasses is not proven to help a lot in nourishing the body.
  5. In fact sometimes for some people, if drinking more water or excessive than recommended can cause dependence.
  6. Other medical literature recommends consumption of one liter of water per day, in addition to exercise or in hot weather.

No Water No Lives

  1. Humans are estimated to survive without consuming water or holding thirst for about three to five days.
  2. While without eating, while still consuming water, humans are still able to survive up to eight weeks.
  3. However, by drinking water from a good source of water and good physical condition, a person will be able to survive more than eight weeks. 
  4. From the existing freshwater volume, it is not all freshwater well consumed by humans and living things. This is due to the occurrence of pollution.
  5. Formerly, prior to the occurrence of pollution, groundwater as it is in rivers, lakes, is worth consuming.
  6. Natural groundwater is still able to neutralize from a variety of cargo that is harmful when consumed, such as toxins and impurities, so it is still worth consuming.
  7. Right now, the water that is still feasible to consume live groundwater. And that is not all groundwater, because it has happened pollution and began to contaminate groundwater with sea water seeping deep into the soil.
  8. The hydrogeologists argue that the most feasible and the best source of springs to be consumed is the source of water coming from volcanic mountain springs.

Bibliography
Agnis Purwitasari, Mardiana dan Oktia Woro. 2006. Studi Kelayakan Sumber Mata Air Kali Bajak Sebagai Pemenuhan Kebutuhan Air Bersih Warga Di Wilayah Kelurahan Karanganyar Gunung Kecamatan Candisari Semarang Tahun 2006. Skripsi. Jurusan Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat, Fakultas Ilmu Keolahragaan, Universitas Negeri Semarang.

Direktorat Jendral Pelayanan Medik Direktorat Laboratorium Kesehatan. 2002. Pedoman Pemeriksaan Fisika Air Minum/ Air Bersih. Jakarata : DepKes RI

Direktorat Jendral Pelayanan Medik Direktorat Laboratorium Kesehatan. 2002. Pedoman Pemeriksaan Kimia Air Minum/ Air Bersih. Jakarata : DepKes RI

Gatot  Irianto. 2004. Hilangnya Sumber Mata Air dan Dampaknya terhadap Desertification. Penulis dari Puslitbangtanak, Bogor, Tabloid Sinar Tani, 30 Juni 2004.