Kudus City, a small town in Central Java Province, Indonesia, proudly declared their team of health promotion. There are 25 members of the team that come from different skills: Nurse, midwife and environment health promotion.

They have work for many years in the civil servant of the district government of Kudus City.

And the main goal of their duty now is keeping the public of Kudus City stay healthy.   And the population of the Kudus city is currently 800.000 peoples.  And at least 20% of them are still poor. Although it is not supported by an adequate health promotion budget, however, the determination and working spirit of the team of health promoters will keep strong.

The Duty oh Health Promoter

The duty of a Health Promoter when enjoyed is very pleasant. Why is that?
They went directly to the villages to provide counseling to the people in the interior to behave in a clean and healthy life. Obstacles and rural natural conditions that are not ideal become challenges for us public health workers. Roads are damaged, there is no electricity, and the absence of clean water facilities often occurs in villages.
Not only minimal public facilities, the low level of education of rural communities also greatly affects the behavior and culture of unhealthy communities. Burning garbage, defecating in an open place, also throwing garbage in the river happens a lot.
Health promoters must have a high spirit, perseverance and patience to carry out their heavy duties.
Voluntary souls, perseverance and dedication are the main capital.
In order to create a healthy society and to change the healthy behavior of the community, health promoters continue to work. Happiness will be felt when people become healthy and prosperous because of the hard work of the health promoter.

Congratulations on the duty of volunteer health promotion in the Kudus District. May God bless you and make your way easier.

Drinking Water Treatment

Mineral water or water in the body among them serves to keep fresh, help digestion and remove toxins. However, you know, there are many benefits that are water from water, in addition to the pleasure of freshness. Drinking Water treatment is very important to keep the availability of fresh water for everyone to stay alive every day.

Many people who do not know the efficacy of water other than to eliminate thirst alone. Water can also cure various diseases in an easy and inexpensive way. The benefits of water are to facilitate the digestive system, helps slow the growth of cancer-causing substances, beauty treatments, for fertility, heart-healthy, as a drug stroke, relaxation effects, body straightening, fitter body, and body balancing.

Water Treatment is Growing Fast

            Water treatment is growing very fast, has changed the paradigm of life in the modern society. The use of uncooked drinking water is not a new thing anymore. The trend of instant living in all lines stimulates scientists from all over the world, to create practical technology, both in process and in the final use of the product, of course with the guarantee of quality standards and excellent health.

Healthy water according to the World Health Organization (WHO) is water that is free from any outbreaks of both visible and invisible germs. From the definition can be simplified that healthy water is water that does not cause a person when consumed it becomes ill. That can be interpreted as a sense of healthy water from the aspect of Microbiology, said Ir. Angga Yuhistira Aryanto, Deputy Quality Manager (Deputy MM) Technology Laboratory and Environmental Management Department of Industrial Engineering.

Apart from that aspect, healthy water must also be seen from the physical and chemical aspects. Physical aspect, according to him, healthy water can be tested by organoleptic test or can be done in a simple way that is by using our five senses. An organoleptic test can be demonstrated by watermarks that are odorless, tasteless and colorless or clear in appearance, obviously Ir. Anga.

            While from chemical aspect, healthy water can be seen the content of organic chemical elements and inorganic chemistry The easiest is to see the pH level and dissolved solids content. That’s according to him has been made easier by the government by making standards for drinking water.

There are several ways of drinking water treatment, among others, as follows

Natural Processing

Processing is done in the form of storage from water obtained from various sources, such as lake water, river water, well water and so on. In this storage, water is left for several hours in place. Then there will be a coagulation of substances contained in the water and finally formed deposits. The water will be clear because the particles present in the water will also settle.

1.Water Treatment by Screening

Simple water filtration can be done with gravel, fibers, and sand. High-tech sand filtering is done by PAM (Drinking Water Company) whose results can be consumed publicly.

2.Water Treatment by Adding Chemical Substances

The chemical used can be 2 kinds of chemicals that function for coagulation and ultimately accelerate the precipitation (eg alum). The second chemical is to disinfect (killing the seeds of the disease in the water, for example, chlorine (Cl).

3.Water Treatment with Air Flowing

The main purpose is to eliminate the unpleasant taste and odor, eliminating unnecessary gases, such as CO2 and also raising the acidity of water.

4.Water Treatment by Heating Up to Boiling

The goal is to kill germs found in water. Processing of this kind is more appropriate only for small consumption for example for household needs. Viewed from consumers, water treatment in principle can be classified into 2 namely:

  • Drinking Water Treatment for the Public
  • Rain Water Shelter. Rainwater can be accommodated in a dam (artificial lake) built on the participation of local communities. All the rainwater flowed into the lake through the water channels. Then around the lake is made a good pump or dug well to the public. Rainwater can also be accommodated with ferosemen tubs and nearby roofs are built to collect rainwater. Around the basin were made outlets for public water retrieval. The good rainwater from the well (lake) and the reservoir is bacteriologically not guaranteed for it then the obligations of families to cook it themselves for example by boiling the water.

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Causes of diarrhea

The causes of diarrhea are usually associated with an unclean environment. Also unhealthy environment. Environmental pollution caused by poor waste management. And the habit of defecating in rivers and open waterways is still comm

Understanding diarrhea

According to WHO (1999) clinically diarrhea is defined as

  1. more defecation than usual. More than three times a day, accompanied by consistent changes of stool (into liquid) with or without blood.
  2. Clinically differentiated between three kinds of diarrhea syndrome are acute, acute, dysentery and persistent diarrhea.

Meanwhile, according to the MOH RI (2005), diarrhea is a disease with signs of changes in the shape and consistency of the stool, which softens to melt and increases the frequency of defecation is usually three or more times a day.

Acute diarrhea is limited as an increase in frequency, increased fluid, or increased amount of stool removed, but it is very relative to the patient’s habit and lasts no more than one week. If diarrhea lasts between one to two weeks then it is said that prolonged diarrhea (Soegijanto, 2002)

Causes of diarrhea

Diarrhea occurs due to stimulation of the autonomic nerves in the intestinal wall causing reflex to accelerate peristaltic intestine, this stimulation can be caused by:

  1. Infections by pathogenic bacteria, eg E.Colie bacteria
  2. Infection by typhoid (occasionally) and cholera bacteria
  3. Infection by viruses, such as stomach influenza and ‘travelers diarrhea
  4. As a result of worm diseases (roundworms, tapeworms)
  5. Food and drink poisoning
  6. Nutritional disorders
  7. The effect of certain enzymes
  8. The influence of nerves (shock, fear, etc.)

Some behaviors that may increase the risk of diarrhea in infants, namely (MOH RI, 2007):

  1. Not fully breastfeeding the first 4-6 months of life. Infants without breastfeeding are at greater risk of developing diarrhea than full-breasted infants, and possibly more severe dehydration.
  2. Using a bottle of milk, the use of this bottle facilitates contamination by germs because bottles are difficult to clean. Use of bottles that are not clean or have been used for hours is left in a hot environment, often causing severe intestinal infections because the bottles can be contaminated by germs/bacteria that cause diarrhea. So that toddlers who use these bottles are at risk of infected diarrhea.
  3. Store food cooked at room temperature, if food is stored for several hours at room temperature, food will be reflected and germ will multiply.
  4. Using contaminated drinking water.
  5. Do not wash hands after defecation and after disposing of stool or before eating and feeding the child.
  6. Do not throw stool properly, often assume that the stool is not dangerous, but actually contains a virus or bacteria in large quantities. In addition, animal feces can also cause infection in humans.

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The Diarrheal Disease

The Diarrheal disease is one of the most environmentally-based diseases.  It is still the biggest health problem in Indonesia. It is due to the poor condition of basic sanitation, physical environment and low behavior of people to live clean and healthy, and there are many factors that cause diarrheal disease.

Environmental hygiene

Environmental hygiene is very influential on health in general. The facts show us that:

1. The number of environmental diseases that attack the community due to lack of clean surrounding environment.

2. And also bad habits that pollute the environment. This can cause diseases carried by impurities in the environment freely either directly or indirectly through intermediaries.

3. Diarrhea is a disease that has been known since the time of Hippocrates. Until now, diarrhea is still one of the main health problems of Indonesian society.

4. Diarrhea is a dangerous disease because it can lead to death. Also can cause extraordinary events (KLB).

5. The main cause of death of diarrhea is dehydration that is as a result of the loss of fluid and electrolyte salts in stool diarrhea (MOH, 1998). The state of dehydration if not immediately helped 50-60% of them can die.

6. About the management and prevention of diarrhea, the most important is the parent role.

7. The level of knowledge of parents about diarrhea in infants is very influential in an arrangement and prevention of diarrhea itself.

8. Knowledge of parents with the incidence of diarrhea in infants can be obtained from various sources.  Such as mass media, counseling health teams, the environment and from various other sources.

During this time the perception that often happened in the community about diarrhea is due to the removal of waste substances.  The waste does not require treatment because it will heal by itself. Or it may also appear perception if the toddler does not go away from diarrhea. Then the mother’s orientation always wants her child immediately can defecate normally suggestions without taking into account the adverse effects of diarrhea drugs that are not an appropriate use.

Human behavior factor

Human behavior factor itself is less understanding of the importance of a clean and healthy life. Also due to the poor sanitary conditions basic physical environment. And low attitudes and behavior of people to live clean and healthy so it is needed a study to evaluate the level of knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of society in the prevention of home diarrhea.

Therefore, by studying the behavior of this society is expected to be a guide in our daily lives of the importance of clean.  And the importance of healthy living. And also the importance of immediately take treatment measures for people who have been infected with diarrhea.

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The Hemorrhoids

Hemorrhoids are health problems that greatly disrupt our routine work activities. At first, we considered this hemorrhoid as a mild problem. but if left unchecked it will become more serious and dangerous.

Definition of Hemorrhoids

The hemorrhoid is a disease that occurs in the anus where the anal lips are swollen sometimes accompanied by bleeding. The actual anatomy of hemorrhoids is not a disease but a change in the veins in the anus. Where on the anus there are three blood vessels or arteries. If one of them is disturbed or there is a dam of blood flow then the vessels will widen or swell. This is called hemorrhoids.

In patients with hemorrhoids are generally difficult to sit and defecate. Because it hurts when the anal lips get pressure. Now there are still many people who say people with severe hemorrhoids sometimes difficult to treat. So it can be given surgical removal of hemorrhoids that can give side effects are sometimes not good. Therefore,  hemorrhoids need to be wary and handled properly for easy to treat. Now with the Mangosteen Juice XAMthone Plus, patients with hemorrhoids do not feel the need to suffer a lifetime due to surgery is done. Because Mangosteen Juice XAMthone Plus can heal hemorrhoid or hemorrhoids without surgery. Do not ignore and underestimate the sickness of hemorrhoids that you suffer.  Because you can be made to suffer for life by the disease or hemorrhoids if this is not addressed properly to the roots.

Types of hemorrhoids there are two kinds, namely hemorrhoids inside and outside hemorrhoids.

The Kinds of Hemorrhoids

1.      Hemorrhoids inside.  This hemorrhoid inside veins of the anus covered by wet mucous membranes. If left untreated may appear to stand out like outside hemorrhoids. Symptoms of internal hemorrhoids are like there is blood coming out of the anus when defecating. Generally, if it is severe it can stand out and continue to grow as big as a tennis ball so surgical action should be taken to remove the hemorrhoids.

2.      External hemorrhoids are varicose veins under the muscles that are generally associated with the skin. Usually, this hemorrhoid or hemorrhoids look bluish swelling on the edge of the anus pain and itchy.


The community must know about the dangers of cigarettes for health. And the government must always drive anti-cigarette campaigns to the community. The benefits of the tobacco industry are very small compared to the adverse effects on health. And more tragically, cigarettes will damage the potential of the younger generation. Besides that, cigarette addicts will be more easily tempted to use drugs.

Understanding Cigarettes

  1. A cigarette is a paper-sized slender of 70 to 120 mm long with a diameter of about 10 mm containing tobacco leaves that have been chopped.
  2. By burning cigarettes at one end and allowed to burn so that the smoke can be inhaled through the mouth at the other end.
  3. Cigarettes are dangerous & addictive products (causing dependence).
  4. In the cigarette, there are 4000 dangerous chemicals 69 of which are carcinogenic (can cause cancer).
  5. Hazardous substances contained in cigarettes include tar, carbon monoxide, cyanide, arsenic, formaldehyde, nitrosamine, and others.

Types of smokers

Based on the type of smokers can be divided into:

  1. Active smoker
    They have gotten used to and actually smoked cigarettes and paid for the consequences themselves.
  2. Passive smoker
    They actually do not smoke but because there are other people who smoke nearby then they automatically participate in the smoking cigarette with all the consequences.
    Based on the number of smokers divided into:
  3. Light smokers.
    Smokers who smoke or spend about 1-10 cigarettes per day.
  4. Medium smokers.
    Smokers who spend about 10-20 cigarettes per day.
  5. Heavy smokers.
    Smokers who spend more than 20 cigarettes per day.

Substances contained in smoking

  1. Nicotine
    This substance contains opium can cause a person addicted to keeping smokes cigarettes.
    Influence on the human body
    a. Causing addiction or dependence damages brain tissue
    b. Cause blood rapidly freezes
    c. Hardened artery walls
  2. Tar
    The basic ingredients of making the asphalt that can stick to the lungs and can cause irritation and even cancer
    Influence on the human body
    a. Kill the cells in the bloodstream
    b. Increase the production of mucus in the lungs
    c. Causes lung cancer
  3. Carbon Monoxide
    Gas that can cause heart disease because this gas can bind oxygen in the body.
    Influence on the human body
    a. Binds hemoglobin, so the body is deprived of oxygen
    b. blocking transport in the blood
  4. Carcinogenic substances
    Influence on the human body
    It triggers the growth of cancer cells in the body
  5. Irritants
    Influence for human body
    a. To pollute the airways and airbags in the lungs
    b. Causes a cough.
    As we know there are 4000 toxic chemicals in a cigarette. 40 of them are harmful substances such as hydrogen cyanide (HCN), arsenic, ammonia, polonium, and carbon monoxide (CO). This chemical is composed of 85% gas components and particles.

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Adverse effects of cigarette smoke

The public need to know the adverse effects of cigarette smoke.  Actually, Adverse effects of cigarette smoke on school children and teenagers and pregnant women.
Cigarette smoke is very bad for school children and teenagers and pregnant women because it can interfere with the health of the fetus in the womb. The adverse effects of cigarette smoke not only endanger the health of the smoker himself, but also other people around him who accidentally smoke cigarette smoke.

The Diseases 

School children and teenagers exposed to cigarette smoke are susceptible to exposure:
• Respiratory tract infections (bronchitis, pneumonia, and lung infections).
• Sudden asthma disorders.
• Ear infections.
• A chronic cough.
• Lymphoma.
• Blood cancer.
• Brain tumor.
• Weakened body resistance.
Sucking cigarette smoke during pregnancy can cause:
• Babies born prematurely.
• Baby’s weight at low birth.
• Babies die suddenly.
• Mental disability.
• Inability to learn.
• ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome).

Efforts to prevent the bad effects of cigarette smoke on passive smokers?
The more often we are exposed to cigarette smoke, the higher the risk of the disease.
Effective efforts that can be done is to distance yourself and your family from cigarette smoke. Ask that a smoker not smoke around other people such as inside the house, or in a public place. At the mosque, at the market, on the bus, at the public transport stop, at the terminal.
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Prevention Efforts

Plastic Waste Problem Solution (Part 2)

Actually plastic has several advantages, such as strong, light, and stable. However, the plastic waste is difficult to decompose by microorganisms in the environment causing serious environmental pollution.  To solve the problem of plastic waste, several approaches such as recycling. Development of plastic waste processing technology. And also the development of new plastic materials in order that the plastic waste can be destroyed and decomposed in the environment, known as biodegradable plastics.

Here we will discuss waste management methods through combustion process using incinerator and recycling process to handle the combustion side product. It is expected that this method can be applied in Indonesia.  To deal with environmental problems caused by environmental disability (especially microorganisms) in remodeling and decomposing plastic waste.

The use of plastic continues to increase from year to year. Even in 1992, plastic waste was ranked third of all waste production in Bandung. Plastic waste itself is a waste that is difficult to degrade. It causes pollution on environmental sustainability.

The Sanitary Landfill

During this effort to handle plastic waste is done by sanitary landfill method. This method is one of controlled waste management. Trash is discharged to the Final Disposal, then the garbage is compacted with the tractor and then covered with the ground. This will eliminate air pollution that will cause waste. At the bottom of the place is equipped leachate channel system that serves as a waste liquid waste channel that must be processed first before discharge into the river or into the environment.

This method is not effective because it often causes pollution of ground water and the environment around the landfill. Even recently, in Bandung there was a disaster due to landfill that does not meet the requirements. In addition there is the possibility of gas that can cause air pollution. Gases that may be produced are: methane, H2S, NH3 and other H2S and NH3 gases although the numbers are small, but can cause unpleasant odors that can damage the respiratory system of plants and make plants lack of oxygen gas and eventually die.

In the process of landfilling, needs a lot of jobs and funds. A better solution needs to be considered. The solution includes efforts to reduce plastic waste production and waste processing efforts that already exist.

Efforts to reduce waste production

Efforts to reduce waste production can be done by:

(1) Use of biodegradable plastics, (2) Much research has been done to obtain biodegradable plastics. Usually, a plastic polymer is mixed with certain impurities that cause the polymer bonding strength to decrease. (3) Reduction of plastic usage. (4)  Plastics may be replaced with other materials that are more environmentally friendly. Shopping bags that have been made of plastic can be replaced with paper. (5) Sorting of organic and plastic waste.

The waste segregation should start from the household level. Household waste should have been split into organic and inorganic waste (including plastic). Further sorting is also done at a higher level, such as the supermarkets.  They are more manageable than the traditional market, offices, hotels, and apartments too. 

Combustion results are gases and combustion residues. The decrease in the volume of solid waste from combustion can reach 70%. This method is relatively more expensive than sanitary landfill, which is about three times as much.The advantages of this combustion system are:

  • Requires a relatively small area compared to sanitary landfills.• Can be built near industrial sites.
  • The combustion residue is relatively stable and almost all of them are inorganic.
  • Can be used as an energy source, both for steam generators, hot water, electricity, and metal melting.

The drawback lies in the expensive investment, labor, repair and maintenance costs, and still removing residues, also generating gas.In general, the combustion process inside the incinerator is:

  • Burnable waste is inserted in a container or supplier.
  • Next, the garbage is set so that it is flat and then put into the burner stove.
  • Ash combustion results, can then be used as a waste cover on landfill.
  • While the results of gas will be channeled through a chimney that is equipped with a scrubber or accommodated to be utilized as an energy generator.

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Plastic Waste Problem Solution: Insinerator and Recycling

Plastic waste is a problem for the environment. Not only a problem for developing countries, but also for developed countries around the world. This problem must be addressed immediately so as not to get bigger.

Plastic is a synthetic polymer material that never loose in everyday life. Plastics have become an important part and become the primary needs of everyone. Ranging from home appliances, school supplies, computer equipment, phones, cables, children’s toys. Also food wrappers to artificial heart valves, all do not escape the interference of these synthetic polymers. Plastics have many meritorious and provide convenience in meeting their daily needs. But is it true that there is no problem caused?

The Polymer’s Hazard

Before discussing more about the problems caused by the use of plastics and the prevention, it is better if the authors discuss briefly about the polymer. Polymers are classified into two kinds, namely natural polymers (such as starch, cellulose, and silk) and synthetic polymers (such as vinyl polymers). Plastics known everyday are often interchangeable with synthetic polymers. This is because easily formed plastic properties (Latin, plasticus = easily formed) are associated with synthetic polymers that can be melted and converted into various shapes. In fact, plastic has a more narrow meaning.

Plastics include thermoplastic polymer parts, the polymers that will soften when heated and can be formed according to the pattern we want. Once cool the polymer will preserve its new shape. This process can be repeated and can be transformed into another form. Another class of synthetic polymers is a thermoset polymer (a material that can be melted at some stage in its manufacture but becomes hard forever, not softened and can not be reprinted). Examples of this polymer is a widely used for radio equipment, toilets, and others.

The discovery and development of synthetic polymers is based on the presence of several limitations found in the utilization of natural polymers. Synthetic polymers whose development is very rapid is plastic. The ease and privilege of plastics has replaced the use of materials such as metal and wood in helping human life. Examples of plastics widely used in daily life are polyethylene (packing material, plastic bag, toy, bottle), teflon (metal substitute, cooking utensil), polyvinylchloride (for pipe, household appliance, paint, phonograph ), polystyrene (electrical insulators, food wrappers, styrofoam, toys), and others.The increasing number of the world population, it also increases the use of natural resources and energy on a large scale. This causes the amount of waste to be greatly increased.

Among the waste, plastic waste is the most difficult waste handling, because plastic waste can not decompose in the environment. As a result, plastic waste has become a large-scale environmental problem and should be sought after its completion.In developed countries, various methods of solving waste problems have been tested, from the smallest to the largest scale. The results of this study have provided an overview in choosing one of the most appropriate models to be applied to adapt local environmental and resource conditions.

In the handling of organic waste with household waste composting technology, the process is very dependent on the “miracle” of bacteria, both aerobic bacteria and anaerobic bacteria that help the process of fermentation or decomposition. Scientifically, the results of these experiments are very significant to help reduce the accumulation and contamination of toxic waste content of household waste. Waste processing technology using sanitary Landfill method, Mini Composter, Vermicomposting, Incinerator, Open Windrow, Aerial Tub, Bio Filter and many more is an alternative way to solve garbage problem. Each technology has very different characteristics in its application or operation. If you are not careful selecting the technology used, it will be fatal for users, both in terms of economic, health, time and emotion. This can happen because each technology has many specifications, such as the size and type of raw materials, treatments, and special care.

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Springs Conservation of Functions Benefits

Springs conservation is needed for human survival. Because humans really need clean water to stay alive and healthy.  Springs conservation must be done immediately and cannot be delayed anymore. not only humans who need water, but all living things that exist today and in the future all need it. Water is a substance or matter or element that is important to all life forms that are known to date on earth. 

The Facts to remember

  1. The human body consists of 55% to 78% water, depending on the size of the body.
  2. In order to function properly, the human body needs between one and seven liters of water daily to avoid dehydration (the exact amount depends on the level of activity, temperature, humidity, and several other factors).
  3. Most people believe that humans need 8-10 glasses (about two liters) per day.
  4. But the results of research published in the University of Pennsylvania in 2008 showed that the consumption of a number of 8 glasses is not proven to help a lot in nourishing the body.
  5. In fact sometimes for some people, if drinking more water or excessive than recommended can cause dependence.
  6. Other medical literature recommends consumption of one liter of water per day, in addition to exercise or in hot weather.

No Water No Lives

  1. Humans are estimated to survive without consuming water or holding thirst for about three to five days.
  2. While without eating, while still consuming water, humans are still able to survive up to eight weeks.
  3. However, by drinking water from a good source of water and good physical condition, a person will be able to survive more than eight weeks. 
  4. From the existing freshwater volume, it is not all freshwater well consumed by humans and living things. This is due to the occurrence of pollution.
  5. Formerly, prior to the occurrence of pollution, groundwater as it is in rivers, lakes, is worth consuming.
  6. Natural groundwater is still able to neutralize from a variety of cargo that is harmful when consumed, such as toxins and impurities, so it is still worth consuming.
  7. Right now, the water that is still feasible to consume live groundwater. And that is not all groundwater, because it has happened pollution and began to contaminate groundwater with sea water seeping deep into the soil.
  8. The hydrogeologists argue that the most feasible and the best source of springs to be consumed is the source of water coming from volcanic mountain springs.

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Direktorat Jendral Pelayanan Medik Direktorat Laboratorium Kesehatan. 2002. Pedoman Pemeriksaan Fisika Air Minum/ Air Bersih. Jakarata : DepKes RI

Direktorat Jendral Pelayanan Medik Direktorat Laboratorium Kesehatan. 2002. Pedoman Pemeriksaan Kimia Air Minum/ Air Bersih. Jakarata : DepKes RI

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