Drinking Water Treatment

Mineral water or water in the body among them serves to keep fresh, help digestion and remove toxins. However, you know, there are many benefits that are water from water, in addition to the pleasure of freshness. Drinking Water treatment is very important to keep the availability of fresh water for everyone to stay alive every day.

Many people who do not know the efficacy of water other than to eliminate thirst alone. Water can also cure various diseases in an easy and inexpensive way. The benefits of water are to facilitate the digestive system, helps slow the growth of cancer-causing substances, beauty treatments, for fertility, heart-healthy, as a drug stroke, relaxation effects, body straightening, fitter body, and body balancing.

Water Treatment is Growing Fast

            Water treatment is growing very fast, has changed the paradigm of life in the modern society. The use of uncooked drinking water is not a new thing anymore. The trend of instant living in all lines stimulates scientists from all over the world, to create practical technology, both in process and in the final use of the product, of course with the guarantee of quality standards and excellent health.

Healthy water according to the World Health Organization (WHO) is water that is free from any outbreaks of both visible and invisible germs. From the definition can be simplified that healthy water is water that does not cause a person when consumed it becomes ill. That can be interpreted as a sense of healthy water from the aspect of Microbiology, said Ir. Angga Yuhistira Aryanto, Deputy Quality Manager (Deputy MM) Technology Laboratory and Environmental Management Department of Industrial Engineering.

Apart from that aspect, healthy water must also be seen from the physical and chemical aspects. Physical aspect, according to him, healthy water can be tested by organoleptic test or can be done in a simple way that is by using our five senses. An organoleptic test can be demonstrated by watermarks that are odorless, tasteless and colorless or clear in appearance, obviously Ir. Anga.

            While from chemical aspect, healthy water can be seen the content of organic chemical elements and inorganic chemistry The easiest is to see the pH level and dissolved solids content. That’s according to him has been made easier by the government by making standards for drinking water.

There are several ways of drinking water treatment, among others, as follows

Natural Processing

Processing is done in the form of storage from water obtained from various sources, such as lake water, river water, well water and so on. In this storage, water is left for several hours in place. Then there will be a coagulation of substances contained in the water and finally formed deposits. The water will be clear because the particles present in the water will also settle.

1.Water Treatment by Screening

Simple water filtration can be done with gravel, fibers, and sand. High-tech sand filtering is done by PAM (Drinking Water Company) whose results can be consumed publicly.

2.Water Treatment by Adding Chemical Substances

The chemical used can be 2 kinds of chemicals that function for coagulation and ultimately accelerate the precipitation (eg alum). The second chemical is to disinfect (killing the seeds of the disease in the water, for example, chlorine (Cl).

3.Water Treatment with Air Flowing

The main purpose is to eliminate the unpleasant taste and odor, eliminating unnecessary gases, such as CO2 and also raising the acidity of water.

4.Water Treatment by Heating Up to Boiling

The goal is to kill germs found in water. Processing of this kind is more appropriate only for small consumption for example for household needs. Viewed from consumers, water treatment in principle can be classified into 2 namely:

  • Drinking Water Treatment for the Public
  • Rain Water Shelter. Rainwater can be accommodated in a dam (artificial lake) built on the participation of local communities. All the rainwater flowed into the lake through the water channels. Then around the lake is made a good pump or dug well to the public. Rainwater can also be accommodated with ferosemen tubs and nearby roofs are built to collect rainwater. Around the basin were made outlets for public water retrieval. The good rainwater from the well (lake) and the reservoir is bacteriologically not guaranteed for it then the obligations of families to cook it themselves for example by boiling the water.

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Causes of diarrhea

The causes of diarrhea are usually associated with an unclean environment. Also unhealthy environment. Environmental pollution caused by poor waste management. And the habit of defecating in rivers and open waterways is still comm

Understanding diarrhea

According to WHO (1999) clinically diarrhea is defined as

  1. more defecation than usual. More than three times a day, accompanied by consistent changes of stool (into liquid) with or without blood.
  2. Clinically differentiated between three kinds of diarrhea syndrome are acute, acute, dysentery and persistent diarrhea.

Meanwhile, according to the MOH RI (2005), diarrhea is a disease with signs of changes in the shape and consistency of the stool, which softens to melt and increases the frequency of defecation is usually three or more times a day.

Acute diarrhea is limited as an increase in frequency, increased fluid, or increased amount of stool removed, but it is very relative to the patient’s habit and lasts no more than one week. If diarrhea lasts between one to two weeks then it is said that prolonged diarrhea (Soegijanto, 2002)

Causes of diarrhea

Diarrhea occurs due to stimulation of the autonomic nerves in the intestinal wall causing reflex to accelerate peristaltic intestine, this stimulation can be caused by:

  1. Infections by pathogenic bacteria, eg E.Colie bacteria
  2. Infection by typhoid (occasionally) and cholera bacteria
  3. Infection by viruses, such as stomach influenza and ‘travelers diarrhea
  4. As a result of worm diseases (roundworms, tapeworms)
  5. Food and drink poisoning
  6. Nutritional disorders
  7. The effect of certain enzymes
  8. The influence of nerves (shock, fear, etc.)

Some behaviors that may increase the risk of diarrhea in infants, namely (MOH RI, 2007):

  1. Not fully breastfeeding the first 4-6 months of life. Infants without breastfeeding are at greater risk of developing diarrhea than full-breasted infants, and possibly more severe dehydration.
  2. Using a bottle of milk, the use of this bottle facilitates contamination by germs because bottles are difficult to clean. Use of bottles that are not clean or have been used for hours is left in a hot environment, often causing severe intestinal infections because the bottles can be contaminated by germs/bacteria that cause diarrhea. So that toddlers who use these bottles are at risk of infected diarrhea.
  3. Store food cooked at room temperature, if food is stored for several hours at room temperature, food will be reflected and germ will multiply.
  4. Using contaminated drinking water.
  5. Do not wash hands after defecation and after disposing of stool or before eating and feeding the child.
  6. Do not throw stool properly, often assume that the stool is not dangerous, but actually contains a virus or bacteria in large quantities. In addition, animal feces can also cause infection in humans.

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The Diarrheal Disease

The Diarrheal disease is one of the most environmentally-based diseases.  It is still the biggest health problem in Indonesia. It is due to the poor condition of basic sanitation, physical environment and low behavior of people to live clean and healthy, and there are many factors that cause diarrheal disease.

Environmental hygiene

Environmental hygiene is very influential on health in general. The facts show us that:

1. The number of environmental diseases that attack the community due to lack of clean surrounding environment.

2. And also bad habits that pollute the environment. This can cause diseases carried by impurities in the environment freely either directly or indirectly through intermediaries.

3. Diarrhea is a disease that has been known since the time of Hippocrates. Until now, diarrhea is still one of the main health problems of Indonesian society.

4. Diarrhea is a dangerous disease because it can lead to death. Also can cause extraordinary events (KLB).

5. The main cause of death of diarrhea is dehydration that is as a result of the loss of fluid and electrolyte salts in stool diarrhea (MOH, 1998). The state of dehydration if not immediately helped 50-60% of them can die.

6. About the management and prevention of diarrhea, the most important is the parent role.

7. The level of knowledge of parents about diarrhea in infants is very influential in an arrangement and prevention of diarrhea itself.

8. Knowledge of parents with the incidence of diarrhea in infants can be obtained from various sources.  Such as mass media, counseling health teams, the environment and from various other sources.

During this time the perception that often happened in the community about diarrhea is due to the removal of waste substances.  The waste does not require treatment because it will heal by itself. Or it may also appear perception if the toddler does not go away from diarrhea. Then the mother’s orientation always wants her child immediately can defecate normally suggestions without taking into account the adverse effects of diarrhea drugs that are not an appropriate use.

Human behavior factor

Human behavior factor itself is less understanding of the importance of a clean and healthy life. Also due to the poor sanitary conditions basic physical environment. And low attitudes and behavior of people to live clean and healthy so it is needed a study to evaluate the level of knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of society in the prevention of home diarrhea.

Therefore, by studying the behavior of this society is expected to be a guide in our daily lives of the importance of clean.  And the importance of healthy living. And also the importance of immediately take treatment measures for people who have been infected with diarrhea.

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The Hemorrhoids

Hemorrhoids are health problems that greatly disrupt our routine work activities. At first, we considered this hemorrhoid as a mild problem. but if left unchecked it will become more serious and dangerous.

Definition of Hemorrhoids

The hemorrhoid is a disease that occurs in the anus where the anal lips are swollen sometimes accompanied by bleeding. The actual anatomy of hemorrhoids is not a disease but a change in the veins in the anus. Where on the anus there are three blood vessels or arteries. If one of them is disturbed or there is a dam of blood flow then the vessels will widen or swell. This is called hemorrhoids.

In patients with hemorrhoids are generally difficult to sit and defecate. Because it hurts when the anal lips get pressure. Now there are still many people who say people with severe hemorrhoids sometimes difficult to treat. So it can be given surgical removal of hemorrhoids that can give side effects are sometimes not good. Therefore,  hemorrhoids need to be wary and handled properly for easy to treat. Now with the Mangosteen Juice XAMthone Plus, patients with hemorrhoids do not feel the need to suffer a lifetime due to surgery is done. Because Mangosteen Juice XAMthone Plus can heal hemorrhoid or hemorrhoids without surgery. Do not ignore and underestimate the sickness of hemorrhoids that you suffer.  Because you can be made to suffer for life by the disease or hemorrhoids if this is not addressed properly to the roots.

Types of hemorrhoids there are two kinds, namely hemorrhoids inside and outside hemorrhoids.

The Kinds of Hemorrhoids

1.      Hemorrhoids inside.  This hemorrhoid inside veins of the anus covered by wet mucous membranes. If left untreated may appear to stand out like outside hemorrhoids. Symptoms of internal hemorrhoids are like there is blood coming out of the anus when defecating. Generally, if it is severe it can stand out and continue to grow as big as a tennis ball so surgical action should be taken to remove the hemorrhoids.

2.      External hemorrhoids are varicose veins under the muscles that are generally associated with the skin. Usually, this hemorrhoid or hemorrhoids look bluish swelling on the edge of the anus pain and itchy.

Diarrheal disease (Transmission and Symptoms)

Unclean snacks are the main factor causing diarrhea disease. In Indonesia, diarrheal disease is a common digestive disorder for the community.

Many of those who think diarrhea is a trivial disease, but not many know that diarrhea often causes sufferers to lose their lives because of late medical treatment.

Severe diarrhea disease causes many Indonesian lives. This disease is caused by digestive disorders due to bacterial virus infection. The most common diarrhea-causing bacteria include rotavirus, Shigella, Cryptosporidium, norovirus, E. coli, and Giardia intestinalis.

Diarrhea is characterized by abdominal pain or cramps, loss of appetite, continuous thirst, soft or runny bowel movements, and a desire to go back and forth to the toilet.

Transmission of Diarrhea

Transmission of diarrheal diseases is usually contacted with infected stools directly, such as:

  • Contaminated food and drink, whether contaminated by insects or contamination by dirty hands or tools on the table.
  • Play with contaminated toys, especially in infants often enter hands, toys, or others into the mouth. Cryptosporidium
  • Use of contaminated water sources and not cooking water properly.
  • Washing and disposing of unsanitary bottles.
  • Do not wash hands thoroughly after defecation or clean the stools of infected children, thus contaminating furniture and tools held.

The symptoms and effects of diarrhea

Ministry of Health of Indonesia Republic (2000), classified diarrhea into four groups, namely:

  • Acute diarrhea: diarrhea lasting less than fourteen days (generally less than seven days),
  • dysentery; namely diarrhea accompanied by blood in his stool,
  • persistent diarrhea; ie diarrhea lasting more than fourteen days continuously,
  • Diarrhea with other problems; children with diarrhea (acute and persistent diarrhea) may also be accompanied by other diseases such as fever, malnutrition or other illnesses.

Acute diarrhea may result in:

  • lose a lot of water and electrolytes and acid-base disorders that cause dehydration, metabolic acidosis, and hypokalemia,
  • Impaired blood circulation, maybe a hypovolemic shock as a result of diarrhea with or without vomiting,
  • Nutrition disorders that occur due to excessive fluid release due to diarrhea and vomiting. 

Symptoms of Diarrhea

  • baby or child becomes whiny and restless. Her body temperature rises
  • baby stools are dilute, slimy, or bleeding
  • the color of greenish feces due to mixed with bile
  • their anus blisters
  • nutritional disorders due to lack of intake (food intake)
  • maybe vomiting before or after diarrhea
  • hypoglycemia (decreased blood sugar)
  • Risk of dehydration (lack of fluids)

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Cure and Treatment of diarrhea

Really needs more attention for the principle to cure and treatment of diarrhea sufferers. Cure and treatment must be done patiently.

* Give additional liquid (as much as the child wants)

* In infants, breastfeeding is the main step of giving additional fluid. Give ASI more often and longer / more.

* Give additional ORS, liquid food (vegetable soup, starch) or boiled water.

* If the child vomits when given a liquid intake, stop 10 minutes then repeat again with a slower frequency.

* Continue feeding

The Drugs

The drugs that are given to treat diarrhea can be:

  1. Chemotherapy
  2. Obstipansia
  3. Spasmolitik
  4. Probiotics

Prior to being given the right medication, the first aid of diarrhea treatment is to overcome excessive fluid or electrolyte (dehydration) removal, especially in infants and elderly patients, as dehydration can lead to death. Symptoms of dehydration:

  1. Thirsty
  2. Dry mouth and lips
  3. Skin becomes wrinkled (loss of turgor)
  4. Reduced urine
  5. Weight loss and
  6. restless

First Aids

first aid is given oralit is a mixture of:

  • 3.5 gram NaCl
  • KCl 1.5 gram
  • NaHCO3 2.5 grams
  • Glucose 20 grams

Or by giving an intra venous infusion solution such as:

  • 9% NaCl solution (normal saline)
  • Na solution. compound lactate (ringer lactate)

Afterward, other medications may be selected based on the type of cause of diarrhea through careful examination.

1) Chemotherapy

            For causal therapy that destroys disease-causing bacteria sulfonamide  antibiotic drug class

2) Obstipansia

            For symptomatic therapy with the aim to stop diarrhea, namely by:

  1. Suppressing bowel peristalsis (loperamide)
  2. Shrink the intestinal membrane or adstringent (tannin)
  3. Giving adsorbents to absorb toxins produced by bacteria or other diarrhea-causing toxins (carbo adsorbent, kaolin)
  4. Provision of mucilage to protect the lining of the injured bowel

3) Spasmolitik

            Substances that can relax the convulsions of abdominal muscles (abdominal pain) in diarrhea (atropine sulfate)

4) Probiotics to increase endurance

Lactobacillus and bifidobacteria (called Lactid Acid Bacteria / LAB) are probiotics that can produce natural antibiotics that can prevent/inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria. LAB can produce lactic acid which causes intestinal pH into acid, the peristalsisacidic atmosphere will inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria. This LAB can help strengthen and improve baby’s digestion, prevent diarrhea.

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To maintain the nutritional balance for pregnant women is very important. The condition of pregnant women is very different from those who are not pregnant. Especially in terms of daily food consumption. Because not only to fulfill nutrition for herself, but also for her fetus.  Actually, in regulating the intake or food menu, there are things that need to be noticed during pregnancy, for example:

  1. Avoid consuming canned food, excessive sweet foods, and foods that are not fresh
  2. Pregnant women should eat regularly to keep the body so that the fetus in the bladder can absorb food from his mother well
  3. Dishes are composed of nutritious and protein-rich foods
  4. Use a wide variety of nutrient-rich foods by buying and choosing fresh, fully nutritious foods (protein, fat, vitamins)
  5. Reduce the foods that contain lots of gas such as mustard, cabbage, and others
  6. Avoid smoking and drinking like alcohol and others.

Food menu for pregnant women, basically not much different from the menu before pregnancy. So there should be no difficulty in the food menu settings during pregnancy.

Sample menu of the day in pregnant women

  • Grocery Portion dish of the day type of dish
  • Rice 5 + 1 serving Morning food: 1.5 portion rice (150 gram) with fish/meat 1 medium cut (40 grams), medium soy steak 2 pieces (50 grams), 1 cup bowl
  • Vegetable 3 bowls
  • Fruit 4 pieces
  • Meat 3 pieces and fruit 1 medium cut.
  • Eating interlude: 1 cup milk and 1 medium piece of fruit
  • Lunch: 3 servings of rice (300 grams), with a side dish, vegetable, and fruit equal to morning.
  • Meat 3 pieces
  • 2 cup milk
  • Oil 5 teaspoons

Nutrition of Pregnant Women

  1. Food substances are very important for pregnant women because they work for fetal development and growth.
  2. Therefore, the need for food substances must always be met in the body of pregnant women.
  3. It is because the fetus requires nutrients for its development.

According to Dr. Tina Wardani Wisesa, pregnancy is very meaningful to women’s lives. Because it can affect the physiological and psychological conditions. During pregnancy, this will decrease appetite due to physical and physical factors that often appear early in pregnancy. To overcome this, you should eat in small quantities but often.

The food eaten should be no shortage and also the excess. However, that must have many nutrients, protein and enough vitamins and minerals that lives in the body of pregnant women. Nutrition needs will continue to increase, especially after entering the second trimester of pregnancy. Because at that moment, the growth of the fetus is very fast and the mother’s weight goes up and down quickly. In the last two months of pregnancy, the baby’s brain develops very quickly, because in this period babies need nutrients for the development of the brain and nerve tissue.

Things to watch out for, although increased appetite is to stick to a balanced diet with a balanced diet by avoiding high-calorie foods. , be avoided by pregnant women because of the possibility of carrying seeds of certain diseases or parasites that can harm the fetus.

            Things to consider in the fulfillment of pregnant women’s nutrients are:

  1. Mothers should eat regularly three times a day.
  2. The dish should be composed of nutritious food ingredients consisting of: staple food, side dishes, vegetables and fruits and drink 1 cup of milk every day.
  3. Using a variety of existing foods.
  4. Choosing a variety of fresh food.

Usefulness of food for pregnant women

1) For the growth of the fetus in the womb

2) To maintain the health and strength of the body for the mother herself

3) In order for the wounds of labor to heal quickly

4) Useful for backing up for lactation.

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Malnutrition In Children Under 5 Years

Malnutrition is still prevalent in developing countries such as Indonesia. For children under 5 years of age, it will greatly affect their physical growth and development. Therefore, it is necessary to have an integral effort to overcome malnutrition.

Children who are poorly geared for growth and developmental nutrition are inhibited than children who have sufficient nutritional intake. For example, growth includes height, weight Children under 5 years low, brain development, the level of intelligence and psychic are also low and susceptible to infection.

Causes of the malnutrition

Many things that cause the malnutrition in Children under 5 years. These factors are as follows:

  • Economic factors. Parents Children under 5 years old are unable to provide good nutrition due to cost issues.
  • Educational factors. Limited knowledge of good nutritional intake can lead to errors in child feeding. Parents may provide food intake to children in large quantities but without regard to the nutritional content in the food.
  • Environmental factors. If a family lives in an environment that is less attention to nutrition intake, it does not close the possibility of families participating in the habits surrounding environment.
  • According to Dwijayanti (2011: 7), less nutrition can also be caused by (1) Inability to metabolize nutrients. (2) Inability to get the appropriate nutrients from food. (3) Acceleration of excretion of nutrients from the body.
  • Pain or disease that increases the body’s need for nutrients.

Balance Menu For Children under 5 years

            A balanced nutritional intake for children under 5 years is very necessary. Not good if the nutritional intake is less or excessive, it is necessary to balance it tailored to the needs.

Balanced Menu for Children under 5 years according to  Asfuah (2010: 136) namely:

  • Sugar and Salt. Consumption of salt for Children under 5 years no more than 1/6 of the maximum number of adults a day or less than 1 gram. Pay attention to food Children under 5 years old mothers because the adult food is not necessarily suitable for him. Sometimes the mother’s food is too much salt or sugar, or even contain preservatives or artificial coloring.
  • Eating Portion. The child’s meal portion is also different from that of an adult. They need nutritious food sources of complete nutrients in smaller amounts but often.
  • Energy and Nutrition Requirement. Food ingredients of energy sources such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats and vitamins, minerals and fiber must be consumed by children every day. Make arrangements for all of these nutritional sources in the daily menu.
  • Growing Milk. Milk as one source of calcium is also important to consume Children under 5 years. At least Children under 5 years need 350 ml / 12 ounces per day. Milk growth is a complete milk nutrition that is able to meet the nutritional needs of children aged 12 months and over.

Nutrition Management Effort

Nutrition Management Effort for Children under 5 years is very important. Because :

1. The consequences of eating difficulties will obviously affect the nutritional state of a child.

2. So needed an effort to overcome this difficulty in eating. It may take practice, medication, psychological approaches, and other ways.

3. The characteristics of eating patterns Children under 5 years is difficult to eat, the appetite often changes, get bored quickly to eat while sitting need to play games.

            Nutrition management can be done in various ways, namely:

  • Develop good eating habits. Children are introduced early with diverse and well-nourished foods and regular diet.
  • Create a fun eating atmosphere.
  • Avoid foods that are too oily, junk food, preservatives.
  • Tell about good eating.


            From the above discussion, it can be concluded as follows:

  • Children under 5 years need a balanced nutrition intake because age Children under 5 years is a nutritious age. 
  • Good nutrition will affect both the growth and development of children under 5 years such as height and weight.
  • Malnutrition (less nutrient intake) can reduce the growth and development of Children under 5 years.
  • Food menu selection is balanced by taking into account the nutritional content present in it and avoiding the preserved foods.
  • The food menu needs to meet the healthy nutrients of the perfect 5 ie carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals.

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Young women need to understand the importance of nutrition for pregnancy. Especially those who are planning a pregnancy. So that the pregnancy is healthy and gives birth to a healthy baby too.

Understanding Nutrition

Nutrition is a process by which organisms use food normally consumed through digestion, absorption, transport, storage, metabolism and discharge of substances not used to sustain life. Growth and normal function of the organs, and produce energy.

Not a single type of food contains all the nutrients, which can make a person to live healthy, grow and productive. Therefore, everyone needs to consume a variety of foods, except infants aged 1-4 months who simply consume breast milk only. For infants aged 1-4 months, breast milk is the only single food that is important in the process of growing baby fair and healthy.

Diverse Foods

Consuming diverse foods is very beneficial for health, especially in pregnant women. Foods that are diverse are foods that contain many nutrients needed both quality and quantity. In the event of a deficiency in the completeness of a nutritional apparatus in the type of food will be supplemented by similar nutrients from other foods, so that diverse foods will ensure the adequacy of sources of energy substances, builders and regulators for pregnant women and fetus in the womb.

Balance Food and Nutrition for Pregnant Women

Food and nutrition is a balance diet that contains enough carbonhydrate and fat as a source of energy, protein as a source of builders, and vitamins and minerals as regulatory substances. Nutritional needs will increase during pregnancy, but not all nutritional needs increase.

   Basically the food menu in pregnant women is not much different from the menu before pregnancy. Therefore, it is expected that there is no difficulty in the menu settings during pregnancy. During pregnancy, expectant mothers need more nutrients in women who are not pregnant, because the food of pregnant women is needed for themselves and the fetus in it, if the fetal limited mother’s food will still absorb the mother’s food supply so that the mother becomes thin, weak, pale, broken teeth, hair loss and others (Purwita Sari, 2009).

Important Noticed

  1. Similarly, when eating a mother is less, fetal growth will be affected.
  2. Especially if the mother’s nutritional status in the period before pregnancy has been bad as well or malnutrision.
  3. This situation will result an abortion, LBW, preterm birth or even a born baby will die.
  4. At the time of delivery may result in prolonged labor, bleeding, infection, and other difficulties that may require surgery.
  5. Conversely, excessive food will lead to excessive weight gain, large babies, and can also lead to the occurrence of preeclampsy (toxicity of pregnancy).
  6. And if you eat less mother, then repaired after the baby born deficiency that is experienced when in the womb can not be completely repaired.

   Maternal food before and during pregnancy plays an important role in the availability of essential fatty acids in fatty tissue deposits of the mother. Type of fatty acids such as:

  1. Omega 3 fatty acids, linoleic fatty acids, consisting of eikosapentaenoate (EPA) and decosahecaquenoic acid (DHA). Omega 3 fatty acids in pregnant and lactating mothers affect the membrane of nerve cells, affecting brain function for growth and development of placenta and fetus. Also preventing asterosklerosis and coronary heart disease.
  2. Omega-6 fatty acids, linol fatty acids (LNAs), which in the body are converted to arachidonic fatty acids that help to grow and fetal babies as well as the fetal skin of mothers, fetuses and infants.

WHO’s News

  1. Maternal pregnancy should provide essential nutrients for the growth of children and themselves.
  2. Nutritional needs in pregnant women are receiving much attention from various committees across the country.
  3. In the developing countries including Indonesia, nutritional problems are still a major health problem and are the cause of maternal mortality during childbirth.
  4. Likewise during pregnancy, malnutrition becomes the most dangerous moment in her life.

Some negative facts

  1. In rural areas many pregnant women with malnutrition about 23%. 
  2. In general causes of malnutrition in pregnant women is to consume food that is not met by the recommended nutritional requirements.
  3. Also the distance of pregnancy and childbirth are too close.
  4. Pregnant women with low education level and less knowledge will cause maternal mortality to be high.

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The community must know about the dangers of cigarettes for health. And the government must always drive anti-cigarette campaigns to the community. The benefits of the tobacco industry are very small compared to the adverse effects on health. And more tragically, cigarettes will damage the potential of the younger generation. Besides that, cigarette addicts will be more easily tempted to use drugs.

Understanding Cigarettes

  1. A cigarette is a paper-sized slender of 70 to 120 mm long with a diameter of about 10 mm containing tobacco leaves that have been chopped.
  2. By burning cigarettes at one end and allowed to burn so that the smoke can be inhaled through the mouth at the other end.
  3. Cigarettes are dangerous & addictive products (causing dependence).
  4. In the cigarette, there are 4000 dangerous chemicals 69 of which are carcinogenic (can cause cancer).
  5. Hazardous substances contained in cigarettes include tar, carbon monoxide, cyanide, arsenic, formaldehyde, nitrosamine, and others.

Types of smokers

Based on the type of smokers can be divided into:

  1. Active smoker
    They have gotten used to and actually smoked cigarettes and paid for the consequences themselves.
  2. Passive smoker
    They actually do not smoke but because there are other people who smoke nearby then they automatically participate in the smoking cigarette with all the consequences.
    Based on the number of smokers divided into:
  3. Light smokers.
    Smokers who smoke or spend about 1-10 cigarettes per day.
  4. Medium smokers.
    Smokers who spend about 10-20 cigarettes per day.
  5. Heavy smokers.
    Smokers who spend more than 20 cigarettes per day.

Substances contained in smoking

  1. Nicotine
    This substance contains opium can cause a person addicted to keeping smokes cigarettes.
    Influence on the human body
    a. Causing addiction or dependence damages brain tissue
    b. Cause blood rapidly freezes
    c. Hardened artery walls
  2. Tar
    The basic ingredients of making the asphalt that can stick to the lungs and can cause irritation and even cancer
    Influence on the human body
    a. Kill the cells in the bloodstream
    b. Increase the production of mucus in the lungs
    c. Causes lung cancer
  3. Carbon Monoxide
    Gas that can cause heart disease because this gas can bind oxygen in the body.
    Influence on the human body
    a. Binds hemoglobin, so the body is deprived of oxygen
    b. blocking transport in the blood
  4. Carcinogenic substances
    Influence on the human body
    It triggers the growth of cancer cells in the body
  5. Irritants
    Influence for human body
    a. To pollute the airways and airbags in the lungs
    b. Causes a cough.
    As we know there are 4000 toxic chemicals in a cigarette. 40 of them are harmful substances such as hydrogen cyanide (HCN), arsenic, ammonia, polonium, and carbon monoxide (CO). This chemical is composed of 85% gas components and particles.

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