THE PROBLEM OF OBESITY

Today the problem of obesity is a global problem that engulfs the world community in both developed and developing countries including Indonesia. Lifestyle changes including the tendency to consume foods that contain high fat are factors that support the occurrence of overweight and obesity that leads to the problem of obesity. There are various efforts to slimming the body, for example by regulating food, changing lifestyles, administering drugs and surgery to reduce fat or remove part of the intestine. But the most important thing is the behavior of healthy living every day.

Definition of Obesity

Obesity or obesity has different meanings for everyone. Sometimes we are often confused with the notion of obesity and overweight, even though both terms have different meanings. Obesity is a condition of excess body weight due to the accumulation of fat, for men and women each of which exceeds 20% and 25% of body weight and can endanger health. While overweight (overweight, overweight) is a condition where a person’s body weight exceeds normal body weight. Doctors have their own definition of obesity, including:
• A condition where body fat is in excessive amounts
• A chronic treatable disease
• An epidemic (epidemic)
• A condition that is associated with other diseases and can reduce the quality of life
• Handling obesity requires very high maintenance costs

Types of Obesity

Type in obesity can be divided into 2 classifications, namely the type of obesity based on body shape and type of obesity based on the state of fat cells. Type of Obesity Based on Body Shape:

a. Apple type obesity (Apple Shape). This type is usually found in men. Where fat accumulates around the stomach. Health risks for this type are higher compared to pear (Gynoid) types.
b. Pear (Gynoid) type of obesity
This type tends to be owned by women, the fat is stored around the hips and buttocks. The risk for diseases of the gynoid type is generally small.
c. Ovid Type (Fruit Box Shape)
Characteristics of this type are “large in all parts of the body”. The Ovid type is generally found in people who are genetically obese

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Principles Of Nutrition In Children Under 5 Years

Nutrition is a process of using food normally consumed by an organism through the process of digestion, absorption, transport, storage, metabolism and expenditure of substances not used to maintain the normal life, growth, and function of the organs, and generate energy. Proverawati; Asfuah; 2010:1)

Nutrition is Very Important

Nutrition is a very important part of growth and development. It is because:

1. Nutrition in it has a close connection with health and intelligence. Therefore, nutrition becomes one of the determinants of the quality of human resources.

2. A good nutritional status in children under 5 years should get more attention. Because when the nutritional status of children under 5 years is bad, can inhibit the physical growth, mental and ability to think and of course will decrease work productivity.   

3. The type of food and the way it is given also needs to be in accordance with the circumstances of body growth and development of intelligence. Thus, will be obtained a balanced nutrition for Children under 5 years. Basically, the human caloric needs vary according to age, sex, activity, weight, height etc.

Children under 5 years of age 1-5 years can be divided into two, namely:

  1. children aged over one year to three years known as “toddlers”
  2. And children aged more than three years to five years known as the “preschool” age. Children under five years are a group that shows the rapid growth of the body but this group is the most common group suffering from malnutrition (Proverawati, Asfuah, 2010, 127)

Carrying out the best feeding to Children under 5 years aims to: 

  1. Provide adequate nutrition for the needs, maintain health and restore it if ill, perform various activities, growth, and physical and mental development.
  2. Educate good habits about eating, liking and determining the food needed.

Important Nutrition Of Children under 5 years

  1. Nutritional Needs in Children under 5 years need more nutrients because Children under 5 years (1-5 years of age) is a golden period.
  2. Period of life is very important for physical and mental development, at this time also Children under 5 years began to do and find new things. In this case, good nutrition plays an important role.
  3. No giving food intake containing substances that are not good, such as foods containing preservatives, artificial colorings, artificial sweeteners, food delights and the like, it will look its effect on the health of the body.
  4. Thus, the provision of food with a balanced nutritional fulfillment is the right way to maintain health and growth of children under 5 years. So, pay attention to the good diet for Children under 5 years.

The essential nutrients

Among the essential nutrients for food intake for children under 5 years are as follows:

(1) Carbohydrates are easily available energy sources in every food and should be available in sufficient quantities because carbohydrate deficiency can cause hunger and weight loss if the number of carbohydrates in high amounts can cause an increase in weight or obesity. Sufficient amounts of carbohydrates can be obtained from milk, grains, fruits, flour, tubers, wheat and others.

(2) Protein should be consumed in a balanced way because protein is required for the growth and development of the child. Protein is used after carbohydrates and fats are inadequate in the body supply. Protein sources can be obtained from chicken, beans, milk, yogurt, bread, and others.

(3) Fat is the main energy source for growth and physical activity for Children under 5 years. Fat member tasty taste, satiety, and delicious food. Food sources derived from fat such as meat, butter, mayonnaise, cheese, milk.

(4) Vitamins and minerals are recommended to always be served in the daily diet. Because the vitamin is not produced by the body in large quantities. Vitamins are helpful in fighting free radicals. Vitamins can be found in bread, fruits, vegetables, milk, meat.

The function of several food nutrients according to Dwijayanti (2011: 31) as follows:

(1) Carbohydrates serve to conserve protein during energy production. And help burn fat to be more efficient and more perfect. Become a source of quick energy, help the normal function of the intestine, as laksatif helps calcium absorbs.

(2) Proteins function for growth, repair, maintenance of structures and tissues, hormone formation, helps transport other substances in the blood, as well as energy sources.

(3) Fats function is to produce energy for the body, facilitate the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, supply essential fatty acids, support and protect internal organs, help regulate temperature, lubricate body tissues.

(4) Vitamins and minerals function in antioxidants, coenzymes, food additives, medicinal ingredients

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Adverse effects of cigarette smoke

The public need to know the adverse effects of cigarette smoke.  Actually, Adverse effects of cigarette smoke on school children and teenagers and pregnant women.
Cigarette smoke is very bad for school children and teenagers and pregnant women because it can interfere with the health of the fetus in the womb. The adverse effects of cigarette smoke not only endanger the health of the smoker himself, but also other people around him who accidentally smoke cigarette smoke.

The Diseases 


School children and teenagers exposed to cigarette smoke are susceptible to exposure:
• Respiratory tract infections (bronchitis, pneumonia, and lung infections).
• Sudden asthma disorders.
• Ear infections.
• A chronic cough.
• Lymphoma.
• Blood cancer.
• Brain tumor.
• Weakened body resistance.
Sucking cigarette smoke during pregnancy can cause:
• Babies born prematurely.
• Baby’s weight at low birth.
• Babies die suddenly.
• Mental disability.
• Inability to learn.
• ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome).


Efforts to prevent the bad effects of cigarette smoke on passive smokers?
The more often we are exposed to cigarette smoke, the higher the risk of the disease.
Effective efforts that can be done is to distance yourself and your family from cigarette smoke. Ask that a smoker not smoke around other people such as inside the house, or in a public place. At the mosque, at the market, on the bus, at the public transport stop, at the terminal.
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Prevention Efforts

Plastic Waste Problem Solution (Part 2)

Actually plastic has several advantages, such as strong, light, and stable. However, the plastic waste is difficult to decompose by microorganisms in the environment causing serious environmental pollution.  To solve the problem of plastic waste, several approaches such as recycling. Development of plastic waste processing technology. And also the development of new plastic materials in order that the plastic waste can be destroyed and decomposed in the environment, known as biodegradable plastics.

Here we will discuss waste management methods through combustion process using incinerator and recycling process to handle the combustion side product. It is expected that this method can be applied in Indonesia.  To deal with environmental problems caused by environmental disability (especially microorganisms) in remodeling and decomposing plastic waste.

The use of plastic continues to increase from year to year. Even in 1992, plastic waste was ranked third of all waste production in Bandung. Plastic waste itself is a waste that is difficult to degrade. It causes pollution on environmental sustainability.

The Sanitary Landfill

During this effort to handle plastic waste is done by sanitary landfill method. This method is one of controlled waste management. Trash is discharged to the Final Disposal, then the garbage is compacted with the tractor and then covered with the ground. This will eliminate air pollution that will cause waste. At the bottom of the place is equipped leachate channel system that serves as a waste liquid waste channel that must be processed first before discharge into the river or into the environment.

This method is not effective because it often causes pollution of ground water and the environment around the landfill. Even recently, in Bandung there was a disaster due to landfill that does not meet the requirements. In addition there is the possibility of gas that can cause air pollution. Gases that may be produced are: methane, H2S, NH3 and other H2S and NH3 gases although the numbers are small, but can cause unpleasant odors that can damage the respiratory system of plants and make plants lack of oxygen gas and eventually die.

In the process of landfilling, needs a lot of jobs and funds. A better solution needs to be considered. The solution includes efforts to reduce plastic waste production and waste processing efforts that already exist.

Efforts to reduce waste production

Efforts to reduce waste production can be done by:

(1) Use of biodegradable plastics, (2) Much research has been done to obtain biodegradable plastics. Usually, a plastic polymer is mixed with certain impurities that cause the polymer bonding strength to decrease. (3) Reduction of plastic usage. (4)  Plastics may be replaced with other materials that are more environmentally friendly. Shopping bags that have been made of plastic can be replaced with paper. (5) Sorting of organic and plastic waste.

The waste segregation should start from the household level. Household waste should have been split into organic and inorganic waste (including plastic). Further sorting is also done at a higher level, such as the supermarkets.  They are more manageable than the traditional market, offices, hotels, and apartments too. 

Combustion results are gases and combustion residues. The decrease in the volume of solid waste from combustion can reach 70%. This method is relatively more expensive than sanitary landfill, which is about three times as much.The advantages of this combustion system are:

  • Requires a relatively small area compared to sanitary landfills.• Can be built near industrial sites.
  • The combustion residue is relatively stable and almost all of them are inorganic.
  • Can be used as an energy source, both for steam generators, hot water, electricity, and metal melting.

The drawback lies in the expensive investment, labor, repair and maintenance costs, and still removing residues, also generating gas.In general, the combustion process inside the incinerator is:

  • Burnable waste is inserted in a container or supplier.
  • Next, the garbage is set so that it is flat and then put into the burner stove.
  • Ash combustion results, can then be used as a waste cover on landfill.
  • While the results of gas will be channeled through a chimney that is equipped with a scrubber or accommodated to be utilized as an energy generator.

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The Lung Cancer

Lung cancer is a condition in which cancer cells grow uncontrollably in the respiratory organs, namely the lungs. Lung cancer is the most common type of cancer. especially among smokers. this disease attacks many active and passive smokers.
In the early stages of the disease, there are no clear signs or symptoms of lung cancer. But then symptoms such as coughing continuously to experience coughing up blood, always feeling out of breath, fatigue without reason, and weight loss will appear.

The Types of Lung Cancer

There are two types of primary lung cancer based on the type of cell:

  1. lung cancer / SCLC (small-cell lung cancer)
  2. lung cancer / NSCLC non-small-cell lung cancer. Non-small cell lung cancer is four times more likely to occur than small cell lung cancer.

Small cell lung cancer attacks heavy smokers. The spread of cancer cells is faster than non-small cell lung cancer.

The Risk factor

Smoking is a major cause of lung cancer. The highest risk of developing lung cancer is active smokers. 85 percent of lung cancer cases are related to smoking habits. This means that not every smoker will develop lung cancer. and conversely, non-smokers are also likely to develop lung cancer, even though it is lower in number.

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THE DRINKING WATER RESOURCES

The source of drinking water from time to time decreases. It is due to illegal logging of forests almost evenly everywhere. This has a direct impact on the depletion of underground drinking water supplies. If the dry season comes in many villages and the area will experience drought. Therefore the community must immediately stop illegal logging with the police and security forces. Besides making efforts to conserve drinking water sources and replanting forests.

River

River water flows into a reservoir I through a coarse filter that can separate solids in large particles. The reservoir I was given a filter consisting of fibers, sand, gravel and so forth. Then the water flowed to the second container. Here put alum and chlor. From here it is only flowed to the inhabitants or taken directly to the locals themselves. To be free of bacteria when water will be drunk still require boiled first.

Springs

Springs that naturally arise in the villages need to be managed by protecting the springs so as not to be contaminated with feces. From here the water can be channeled to people’s homes through bamboo pipes or residents can directly take it themselves to the source that has been protected.

Wells

Well water pumps, especially deep well water pumps are sufficient to meet health requirements. But these pump wells in rural areas are still expensive. Besides that technology is still considered high for rural communities. More common in rural areas is a dug well.

            In order for the well water of this excavation pump is not polluted by the dirt around it, the need for the following conditions:

  1. There should be a good lip so that when the rainy season arrives, groundwater will not enter into it.
  2. At the top of approximately 3 m from the surface of the ground must be walled, so that water from above cannot contaminate the well water.
  3. Need to be given a layer of gravel at the bottom of the well to reduce turbidity.
  4. Instead of gravel, into this well can be incorporated a substance that can form a precipitate, such as aluminum sulfate (alum).
  5. Cleaning the cloudy well water can be done by filtering it with a self-made filter from a used tin.

Rain Water

            The household need for water can also be done through rainwater catchment. Each family can do rainwater catching from its roof through the flow of gutters. In the rainy season this is not a problem but in the dry season may be a problem. To cope with the family requires a larger rainwater reservoir it is needed having a reservoir for the dry season.

Bad Impact of Obesity

There are some bad Impacts of Obesity that usually appear after a long time unhealthy habits of consuming foods:

1. Excessive accumulation of fat under the diaphragm and inside the chest wall can compress the lungs.

2. So that respiratory problems and shortness of breath arise, even though the patient only has a mild activity.

3. Respiratory problems can occur during sleep and cause a temporary cessation of breathing (sleep apnea). As a result, during the day sufferers often feel sleepy.

4. Obesity can cause a variety of orthopedic problems, including lower back pain and worsen osteoarthritis (especially in the hip, knee and ankle area). Also sometimes skin disorders are found.

5. A person suffering from obesity has a relatively narrow body surface compared to his weight, so that body heat cannot be disposed of efficiently and sweat more. Edema is often found (swelling due to the accumulation of fluid) in the limbs and ankles.

Factors That Cause Obesity

  1. Scientifically, obesity results from consuming more calories than is needed by the body. The cause of the imbalance between intake and burning of calories is still unclear.
  2. The occurrence of obesity involves several factors:
    a. Food Factors
    If someone consumes food with the energy content that is needed by the body, then there is no energy stored. Conversely, if you consume food with more energy than your body needs, the energy will be stored, as energy reserves, especially as fat as described above.
    b. Heredity Factor
    Research in humans and animals shows that obesity occurs because of factors of gene and environmental interactions.
    c. Hormone Factors
    Decreased thyroid hormone in the body due to deterioration of thyroid gland function will affect metabolism where the ability to use energy will decrease.
    d. Psychological Factors
    In some individuals will eat more than usual if they feel the need for a special need for emotional security (security food).
    e. Inappropriate Lifestyle (Life Style)
    Global socioeconomic, technological and information progress has led to lifestyle changes that include thought patterns and attitudes, which can be seen from eating habits and physical activity patterns.
    f. Use of Medicines
    Side effects of some drugs can cause weight gain, such as contraceptive drugs.

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Plastic Waste Problem Solution: Insinerator and Recycling



Plastic waste is a problem for the environment. Not only a problem for developing countries, but also for developed countries around the world. This problem must be addressed immediately so as not to get bigger.

Plastic is a synthetic polymer material that never loose in everyday life. Plastics have become an important part and become the primary needs of everyone. Ranging from home appliances, school supplies, computer equipment, phones, cables, children’s toys. Also food wrappers to artificial heart valves, all do not escape the interference of these synthetic polymers. Plastics have many meritorious and provide convenience in meeting their daily needs. But is it true that there is no problem caused?

The Polymer’s Hazard

Before discussing more about the problems caused by the use of plastics and the prevention, it is better if the authors discuss briefly about the polymer. Polymers are classified into two kinds, namely natural polymers (such as starch, cellulose, and silk) and synthetic polymers (such as vinyl polymers). Plastics known everyday are often interchangeable with synthetic polymers. This is because easily formed plastic properties (Latin, plasticus = easily formed) are associated with synthetic polymers that can be melted and converted into various shapes. In fact, plastic has a more narrow meaning.

Plastics include thermoplastic polymer parts, the polymers that will soften when heated and can be formed according to the pattern we want. Once cool the polymer will preserve its new shape. This process can be repeated and can be transformed into another form. Another class of synthetic polymers is a thermoset polymer (a material that can be melted at some stage in its manufacture but becomes hard forever, not softened and can not be reprinted). Examples of this polymer is a widely used for radio equipment, toilets, and others.

The discovery and development of synthetic polymers is based on the presence of several limitations found in the utilization of natural polymers. Synthetic polymers whose development is very rapid is plastic. The ease and privilege of plastics has replaced the use of materials such as metal and wood in helping human life. Examples of plastics widely used in daily life are polyethylene (packing material, plastic bag, toy, bottle), teflon (metal substitute, cooking utensil), polyvinylchloride (for pipe, household appliance, paint, phonograph ), polystyrene (electrical insulators, food wrappers, styrofoam, toys), and others.The increasing number of the world population, it also increases the use of natural resources and energy on a large scale. This causes the amount of waste to be greatly increased.

Among the waste, plastic waste is the most difficult waste handling, because plastic waste can not decompose in the environment. As a result, plastic waste has become a large-scale environmental problem and should be sought after its completion.In developed countries, various methods of solving waste problems have been tested, from the smallest to the largest scale. The results of this study have provided an overview in choosing one of the most appropriate models to be applied to adapt local environmental and resource conditions.

In the handling of organic waste with household waste composting technology, the process is very dependent on the “miracle” of bacteria, both aerobic bacteria and anaerobic bacteria that help the process of fermentation or decomposition. Scientifically, the results of these experiments are very significant to help reduce the accumulation and contamination of toxic waste content of household waste. Waste processing technology using sanitary Landfill method, Mini Composter, Vermicomposting, Incinerator, Open Windrow, Aerial Tub, Bio Filter and many more is an alternative way to solve garbage problem. Each technology has very different characteristics in its application or operation. If you are not careful selecting the technology used, it will be fatal for users, both in terms of economic, health, time and emotion. This can happen because each technology has many specifications, such as the size and type of raw materials, treatments, and special care.

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Springs Conservation (Part 2)

Spring conservation is very important. By research, hydrogeologists found that volcanic mountain springs fulfill the three conditions of groundwater quality characteristics.  They are namely quality, quantity, and continuity.

Quality

Quality is influenced by natural factors (conditions and composition of soil and rocks) as well as human activities (agriculture, household pollution, industry, etc.). While continuity gives a balance between usage and recharging.

Quantity

Quantity is influenced by rainfall, water cycle and hydrogeological conditions of the area around the water resources. Quality is influenced by natural factors (conditions and composition of soil and rocks) as well as human activities (agriculture, household pollution, industry, etc.). While continuity gives a balance between usage and recharging.

Hydrological cycle

  1. Groundwater starts from a hydrological cycle.
  2. It is began  when clouds are composed of millions of tiny drops of water.
  3. They are so light that these droplets can float in the air
  4. Than they are lifted up by the warm air flow from the ground and eventually turn into rainwater that falls to the earth.
  5. The water permeates and is deposited beneath the soil surface, which is then due to the effect of gravitational forces moving vertically through the soil layer until it reaches the water saturated zone
  6. And is finally deposited in a layer of water-carrying rock called an aquifer.

Types of Aquifers

Aquifers are layers or rock formations capable of storing and passing water in significant quantities, capable of providing supplies to wells or springs. Indonesia is a wet tropical region with relatively high rainfall and geologically located in the volcanic arc area. Indonesia has more than a hundred active and inactive volcanoes. Geologically the volcanoes form rock layers that are very conducive to acting as aquifers.

Based on the constituent material and its physical environment, there are several types of aquifers, namely:

  1. Allifial fan aquifers (located in coastal areas, sedimentary and surrounding areas), sedimentary aquifers (peat, organic).
  2. Karstic aquifers (limestone mountains)
  3. Volcanic aquifers volcanoes), which is the best source of fresh water.

The Facts

  1. During the drainage, groundwater undergoes various processes that make the groundwater contain a variety of minerals and ultimately have different qualities in each place.
  2. As a continuation of natural processes, groundwater then appears on the surface and is called a spring.
  3. In this case, the springs in the mountains are regarded as the perfect source of water, both quantity and quality.
  4. Mountain springs in the mountains are generally large and continuous because in this area is generally a wet area with high rainfall intensity and still has a relatively good catchment area.

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Springs Conservation of Functions Benefits

Springs conservation is needed for human survival. Because humans really need clean water to stay alive and healthy.  Springs conservation must be done immediately and cannot be delayed anymore. not only humans who need water, but all living things that exist today and in the future all need it. Water is a substance or matter or element that is important to all life forms that are known to date on earth. 

The Facts to remember

  1. The human body consists of 55% to 78% water, depending on the size of the body.
  2. In order to function properly, the human body needs between one and seven liters of water daily to avoid dehydration (the exact amount depends on the level of activity, temperature, humidity, and several other factors).
  3. Most people believe that humans need 8-10 glasses (about two liters) per day.
  4. But the results of research published in the University of Pennsylvania in 2008 showed that the consumption of a number of 8 glasses is not proven to help a lot in nourishing the body.
  5. In fact sometimes for some people, if drinking more water or excessive than recommended can cause dependence.
  6. Other medical literature recommends consumption of one liter of water per day, in addition to exercise or in hot weather.

No Water No Lives

  1. Humans are estimated to survive without consuming water or holding thirst for about three to five days.
  2. While without eating, while still consuming water, humans are still able to survive up to eight weeks.
  3. However, by drinking water from a good source of water and good physical condition, a person will be able to survive more than eight weeks. 
  4. From the existing freshwater volume, it is not all freshwater well consumed by humans and living things. This is due to the occurrence of pollution.
  5. Formerly, prior to the occurrence of pollution, groundwater as it is in rivers, lakes, is worth consuming.
  6. Natural groundwater is still able to neutralize from a variety of cargo that is harmful when consumed, such as toxins and impurities, so it is still worth consuming.
  7. Right now, the water that is still feasible to consume live groundwater. And that is not all groundwater, because it has happened pollution and began to contaminate groundwater with sea water seeping deep into the soil.
  8. The hydrogeologists argue that the most feasible and the best source of springs to be consumed is the source of water coming from volcanic mountain springs.

Bibliography
Agnis Purwitasari, Mardiana dan Oktia Woro. 2006. Studi Kelayakan Sumber Mata Air Kali Bajak Sebagai Pemenuhan Kebutuhan Air Bersih Warga Di Wilayah Kelurahan Karanganyar Gunung Kecamatan Candisari Semarang Tahun 2006. Skripsi. Jurusan Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat, Fakultas Ilmu Keolahragaan, Universitas Negeri Semarang.

Direktorat Jendral Pelayanan Medik Direktorat Laboratorium Kesehatan. 2002. Pedoman Pemeriksaan Fisika Air Minum/ Air Bersih. Jakarata : DepKes RI

Direktorat Jendral Pelayanan Medik Direktorat Laboratorium Kesehatan. 2002. Pedoman Pemeriksaan Kimia Air Minum/ Air Bersih. Jakarata : DepKes RI

Gatot  Irianto. 2004. Hilangnya Sumber Mata Air dan Dampaknya terhadap Desertification. Penulis dari Puslitbangtanak, Bogor, Tabloid Sinar Tani, 30 Juni 2004.